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Lipoprotein


DATA No : TLP2001 INFORMANT : Kazuo Kondo

NAME : remnant like particles

COMMON NAME:
SYMBOL: RLP
FORMULA: MOL.WT (average) :


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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Biological Activities
Inhibition of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation
Enhancement of platelet aggregation in whole blood
Uptake by macrophages without modification.
Acceleration of proliferation of smooth muscle cells.
(Ref. 2002/2003/2004/2005)
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Definition
RLP is an abbreviation given to remnant like lipoprotein particles,which do not bind to the anti apo A-I monoclonal antibody (H-12), anti apo B-100 monoclonal antibody (JI-H) conjugated Sepharose-4B.

BOILING POINT:

REFRACTIVE INDEX:

OPTICAL ROTATION:

DENSITY:

SOLUBILITY:Physical properties
main Diameter nm 30-80
Relative weight composition %
Protein 7-10 Phospholipid 17-21 Free cholesterol 6-8 Cholesteryl ester 6-23 Triglyceride 41-61
Apolipoprotein contribution % apoB 3-6 apoCIII 13-19 apo E 29-32
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:

NMR SPECTRA:

MASS SPECTRA:

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA

SOURCE
Characterization
RLP is an abbreviation given to rremnant like lipoprotein particles, which do not bind to the anti apo A-I monoclonal antibody (H-12), anti apo B-100 monoclonal antibody (JI-H) conjugated Sepharose-4B.
Greater than 97% of the LDL and HDL were removed from the serum by the antibodies. Most VLDL are also removed from the serum but chylomicron-derived particles containing apo B-48 remain in the supernatant, together with a minor fraction of VLDL particles containing apo B-100. Both of these particles populations have been shown to be enriched in apo E.
The epitope of the apo B-100 monoclonal antibody has been localized to an amphipathic helical region of apo B-100 encompassing residues 2291-2318, i.e., at about B-51.
The serum concentrations of remnant-like particles are routinely determined in the supernate as RLP-cholesterol and RLP-triglycerides.RLP-cholesterol and RLP-triglycerides increase in patients with atherosclerotic diseases. An increase of RLP-cholesterol in blood is a risk factor for atherosclerosis.

[Table 2001] (Ref. 2006)
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM
Remnant like Particles (RLP)
Remnant like particles are isolated almost free of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) by use of an immunoafinity matrix in which Monoclonal antibody (Mab) JI-H and a Mab to apo A-I are bound to agarose beads. Mab (JI-H) recognizes an epitope in the region of apo B-51. Mab (JI-H) binds to LDL and most Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), but not to a minor fraction of TRL particles containing apo B-100 that is enriched in apo E. The RLP is enriched in apo E and contain more cholesterol esters and free cholesterol than those bind to Mab JI-H. The electrophoretic mobility of RLP is reduced, as compared with the bound very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). In normolipidemic human subjects, the RLP account for about 15% of the total apo B in TRL. The particles are homogeneous in size (30-80 nm) and composition.RLP reflect chyromocron remnants and VLDL remnants.
(Ref. 2001)
GENETIC INFORMATION

NOTE

REFERENCES
[2001]
AUTHOR:Havel,R.J. (1998) Trigryceride-Rich Lipoprotein Remnants, in Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing (Rifai,N., Warnick,G.R., and Dominiczak,M.H., eds), pp451-464, AACC Press, Washington, DC
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[2002]
AUTHOR:Doi, H., Kugiyama, K., Ohgushi, M., Sugiyama, S., Matsumura, T., Ohta, Y., Nakano, T., Nakajima, K., and Yasue, H.
TITLE:Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation PubMed ID:9622277
JOURNAL:Atherosclerosis.
VOL:137 PAGE : 341-349 (1998)
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[2003]
AUTHOR:Knofler, R., Nakano, T., Nakajima, K., Takada, Y., and Takada, A.
TITLE:Remnant-like lipoproteins stimulate whole blood platelet aggregation in vitro PubMed ID:7482433
JOURNAL:Thromb Res.
VOL:78 PAGE : 161-171 (1995)
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[2004]
AUTHOR:Saniabadi, A. R., Umemura, K., Shimoyama, M., Adachi, M., Nakano, M., and Nakashima, M.
TITLE:Aggregation of human blood platelets by remnant like lipoprotein particles of plasma chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins PubMed ID:9184417
JOURNAL:Thromb Haemost.
VOL:77 PAGE : 996-1001 (1997)
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[2005]
AUTHOR:Tomono, S., Kawazu, S., Kato, N., Ono, T., Ishii, C., Ito, Y., Shimizu, M., Shimoyama, M., Nakano, T., and Nakajima, K.
TITLE:Uptake of remnant like particles (RLP) in diabetic patients from mouse peritoneal macrophages PubMed ID:9222876
JOURNAL:J Atheroscler Thromb.
VOL:1 PAGE : 98-102 (1994)
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[2006]
AUTHOR:Nakajima,K., Okazaki,M., Tanaka,A., Pullinger,CR., Wang,T., Nakano,T., Adachi,M., and Havel,R.J.
TITLE:Separation and Determination of Remnant-like Particles in Human Serum Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Apo B-100 and Apo A-I.
JOURNAL:J.Clin. Ligand Assay
VOL:19 PAGE : 177 -183 (1996)
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Last updated June 19, 2007. Copyright © 1989-2007 Japanese Conference on the Biochemistry of Lipids (JCBL). All rights reserved.