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Lipoprotein


DATA No : TLP4201 INFORMANT : Kazuo Kondo

NAME : apolipoprotein A-II

COMMON NAME:
SYMBOL: apo A-II
FORMULA: MOL.WT (average) :
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Function
(1) Apo AII strongly binds to HDL, and induces apo AI release.
(2) Apo AII inhibits LCAT activity (Apo AII releases apo AI from the complex between apo AI and lipids, thus decreasing the activity of LCAT).
(3) Apo AII activates hepatic lipase.(Ref. 4205/4206)
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Molecular weight:8,707times2molecules
Isoelectric point:5(Ref. 4201)

BOILING POINT:The number of amino acid residues :77times2molecules

REFRACTIVE INDEX:Amino acid sequences:Further investigations are required.

OPTICAL ROTATION:Structure:Apo AII consists of 2 polypeptide molecules, and the 6th cysteine molecules are bound by the disulfide bond. The secondary structure of apo AII consists of a-helix (35%), b-structure (13%), and irregular structure (52%).

DENSITY:Amino acid compositions (Ref. 4113)

SOLUBILITY:(Ref. 4202/4203)
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:

NMR SPECTRA:

MASS SPECTRA:

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA
Method of purification
HDL was initially purified and separated by ultracentrifugation, and the sample containing apo AII was dialyzed against 0.16 M NaCl-1 mM EDTA solution (pH 8.0), then lyophilized. Subsequently, fat was removed from the sample using ether/ethanol (2/3), and dissolved in 0.01 M Tris-6 M urea (pH 8.6) for purification by gel filtration chromatography.
SOURCE
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo AII binds to lipids, and exists as a component of chylomicron and HDL.(Ref. 4204)
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
Sites of synthesis:The liver and the small intestine.
The rate of synthesis:2.8mg/kg/day
METABOLISM
Metabolism
After transport from chylomicron to HDL, apo AII is taken up in the liver.
Half life:5.0 days(Ref. 4207)
GENETIC INFORMATION
Genetic information
Gene locus:1;p21-qter
Genearrangement(DNA)(Ref. 4209)(Ref. 4115)
Information of genetic diseases (Complete apo AII deficiency was reported by Takata et al. in 1988).(Ref. 4208)
NOTE
Standard range:25.1-34.5 mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo A-II.
LCAT deficiency, and abetalipoproteinemia.
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry SRID,RIA etc.
REFERENCES
[4113]
AUTHOR:Brewer,H.B.Jr., Ronan,R., Meng, M., and Bishop,C. (1986) Isolation and Characterization of Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and A-IV, in Methods in ENZYMOLOGY Vol.128 (Segrest J.P., and Albers J.J., eds), pp223-246, Academic Press, Inc.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[4115]
AUTHOR:Sharpe, C. R., Sidoli, A., Shelley, C. S., Lucero, M. A., Shoulders, C. C., and Baralle, F. E.
TITLE:Human apolipoproteins AI, AII, CII and CIII. cDNA sequences and mRNA abundance PubMed ID:6328445
JOURNAL:Nucleic Acids Res.
VOL:12 PAGE : 3917-3932 (1984)
[TOP]

[4201]
AUTHOR:Brewer, H. B., Jr., Lux, S. E., Ronan, R., and John, K. M.
TITLE:Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein isolated from the high-density lipoprotein complex PubMed ID:4338591
JOURNAL:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
VOL:69 PAGE : 1304-1308 (1972)
[TOP]

[4202]
AUTHOR:Schonfeld, G., Chen, J., McDonnell, W. F., and Jeng, I.
TITLE:Apolipoprotein A-II content of human plasma high density lipoproteins measured by radioimmunoassay PubMed ID:198505
JOURNAL:J Lipid Res.
VOL:18 PAGE : 645-655 (1977)
[TOP]

[4203]
AUTHOR:Scanu, A., Toth, J., Edelstein, C., Koga, S., and Stiller, E.
TITLE:Fractionation of human serum high density lipoprotein in urea solutions. Evidence for polypeptide heterogeneity PubMed ID:4980192
JOURNAL:Biochemistry.
VOL:8 PAGE : 3309-3316 (1969)
[TOP]

[4204]
AUTHOR:Schaefer,E.J., Jenkins, L.L., and Brewer, H.B. Jr.
TITLE:Human chylomicron apolipoprotein metabolism. PubMed ID:414755
JOURNAL:Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.
VOL:80 PAGE : 405 -412 (1978)
[TOP]

[4205]
AUTHOR:Mao, S. J., Jackson, R. L., Gotto, A. M., Jr., and Sparrow, J. T.
TITLE:Mechanism of lipid-protein interaction in the plasma lipoproteins: identification of a lipid-binding site in apolipoprotein A-II PubMed ID:6784756
JOURNAL:Biochemistry.
VOL:20 PAGE : 1676-1680 (1981)
[TOP]

[4206]
AUTHOR:Jahn, C. E., Osborne, J. C., Jr., Schaefer, E. J., and Brewer, H. B., Jr.
TITLE:Activation of the enzymic activity of hepatic lipase by apolipoprotein A-II. Characterization of a major component of high density lipoprotein as the activating plasma component in vitro PubMed ID:6403350
JOURNAL:Eur J Biochem.
VOL:131 PAGE : 25-29 (1983)
[TOP]

[4207]
AUTHOR:Schaefer, E.J., Jenkins, L.L., and Brewer,H.B.Jr.
TITLE:Human chylomicron apolipoprotein metabolism. PubMed ID:414755
JOURNAL:Biochem.Biophys. Res.Commun.
VOL:80 PAGE : 405 -412 (1978)
[TOP]

[4208]
AUTHOR:Deeb, S. S., Takata, K., Peng, R. L., Kajiyama, G., and Albers, J. J.
TITLE:A splice-junction mutation responsible for familial apolipoprotein A-II deficiency PubMed ID:2107739
JOURNAL:Am J Hum Genet.
VOL:46 PAGE : 822-827 (1990)
[TOP]

[4209]
AUTHOR:Lackner, K. J., Law, S. W., and Brewer, H. B., Jr.
TITLE:Human apolipoprotein A-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preproapo A-II PubMed ID:6090207
JOURNAL:FEBS Lett.
VOL:175 PAGE : 159-164 (1984)
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