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DATA No : VCA0018 INFORMANT : Masayoshi Ito

NAME : (3R,3'S)-3,3'-Dihydroxy-b,b-carotene-4,4'-dione

COMMON NAME: meso-Astaxanthin/ (3R,3'S)-Astaxanthin
FORMULA: C40H52O4 MOL.WT (average) : 596.838

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Antioxidant activity (Ref. 0092/0093/0215)
Singlet oxygen quenching activity (Ref. 0088/0230/0441)
Immunomodulating action (Ref. 0213)
Chemoprevention of carcinogenesis (Ref. 0218/0219)
MELTING POINT:222-223degC (Ref. 0077)





UV SPECTRA:lmax (nm) (e): CHCl3 300 (17634), 490 (116386) (Ref. 0010/0077); hexane 294 (16946), 471 (126163) (Ref. 0077); benzene 485 (112876) (Ref. 0077); ethanol 250 (14002), 297 (15578), 471 (116570) (Ref. 0077)

IR SPECTRA:nmax(KBr)/cm-1: 3486m (OH), 1664s (conj. CO), 1607m, 1557s (C=C), 1399w, 1390m, 1366w (gem. Dimetyl), 1076s, 1039m (OH) and 969s (CH=CH, trans)
[Spectrum 0003] (Ref. 0010/0077)

NMR SPECTRA:1H-NMR d(500 MHz, CDCl3): 1.21 and 1.32 (each 6H, s, 1, 1'-gem-Me), 1.81 (2H, t, J 13, 2, 2'-Hax), 1.94 (6H, s, 5, 5'-Me), 1.98 and 2.00 (each 6H, s, 9, 9', 13, 13'-Me), 2.16 (2H, dd, J 6 and 13, 2, 2'-Heq), 3.67 (2H, d, J 2, 3, 3'-OH), 4.32 (2H, ddd, J 2, 6 and13, 3, 3'-H) and 6.20-6.70 (14H, m, olefinic-H) (Ref. 0068/0077)

MASS SPECTRA:m/z: 596 (M), (M-16), (M-16-16), (M-79), (M-92), (M-106), (M-92-16), (M-106-16), (M-154), (M-167), (M-207), (M-219), (M-233) (Ref. 0058/0077)

OTHER SPECTRA:CD data in EPA solution (25degC): no optical activity (Ref. 0421)
TLC (Kieselgel 60 Merck, CH2Cl2-acetone-formic acid 95:5:3) Rf = 0.3 --- (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin (Ref. 0010)
HPLC (column: Sumipax OA-2000 (10mm) 0.4times25 cm, eluent: hexane-CH2Cl2-EtOH 48:16:0.6, flow: 0.8 ml/min) tR = ca. 57 min (3R,3'R), ca. 60 min (meso), ca. 64 min (3S,3'S)
[Chromatogram 0004] (Ref. 0032/0069/0070/0210)
HPLC (column: LiChrosorb SI 60 (5 mm) 0.32times50 cm, eluent: hexane-ethyl acetate-acetonitrile 88:10:2, flow: 0.8 ml/min) tR = ca. 42 min (diacetate of all-E isomer)
[Chromatogram 0005] --- racemic astaxanthin (Ref. 0071)
HPLC (columun: TSK gel ODS-80Ts (Tosoh) 0.46times15 cm, eluent and flow: 1.0 ml/min, H2O-MeOH 5:95 for 5 min, follwed by 5 min-linear gradient MeOH-THF 7:3, and then MeOH-THF 7:3 for 5 min) b-carotene, echinenone, b-cryptoxanthin, 3-hydroxy-echinenone, cantaxanthin, 3'-hydroxy-echinenone, cis-adonixanthin, adonirubin, adonixanthin and astaxanthin were separated. tR = 6.30 min for astaxanthin (Ref. 0208).
Separation of (3S,3'S), (3S,3'R) and (3R,3'R) astaxanthin by HPLC on a Pirkle covalent L-leucine column (Ref. 1164).
Homarus gammarus (Lobster) (Ref. 0418)
Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus (salmon) (Ref. 0419)
Asterias rubens (starfish) (Ref. 0420)
Shrimps and lobsters (Ref. 0421)
Euphausia superba (antarctic krill) (Ref. 0422)
Asterina pectinifera, Asterias amurensis (starfish) (Ref. 0423)
Watasenia scintilans, Sepia modokai, Sepia officinales (cuttlefish) (Ref. 0424)
Octopus vulgaris, Octopus ocellatus, Octopus minor (octopus) (Ref. 0424)
The Wittig condensation of (R)-apoastaxanthinal (C25) with (S)-C15-phosphonium chloride in 1,2-epoxybutane provided meso-astaxanthin in 50-55% yield. (Ref. 0077)


Almost the same stereochemical composition in astaxanthin, its monoester and its diester in krill are found: 62-71% (3R,3'R)-, 11-14% (3R,3'S; meso)- and 17-26% (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin (Ref. 0422). Those in Euphausia, Thysanoessa, Calanus, Acanthephyra and Cancer (Crustaceans) are also reported (Ref. 1257).
Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations using AM1 Hamiltonian (MNDO-AM1 method) were performed in order to predict their stable structures (Ref. 1337).
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