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Wax


DATA No : WWA1101 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Candelilla wax

COMMON NAME: Candelilla wax (Ref. 0006) / (Ref. 0024) / (Ref. 0025) / (Ref. 0026) / (Ref. 0027) /(Ref. 0028)/ (Ref. 0029) / (Ref. 0030) / (Ref. 0031)
SYMBOL:
FORMULA: MOL.WT (average) :


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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Uses
Owing to its high melting point, candelilla wax is used in lipsticks and hair stick to enhance temperature resistance. Apart from cosmetics, it is used in brighteness, finishing agents, electrical insulating agents, waterproofing agents, etc.. It is also added to other waxes to increase hardness.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Melting point 68-72deg C (Ref. 0006) Melting point mesuring method (Ref. 0001) Method 2

BOILING POINT:Iodine value 10-22 (Ref. 0006) Iodine value mesuring method (Ref. 0005) Prepare 30ml of cabon tetrachloride

REFRACTIVE INDEX:Acid Value 14-24 (Ref. 0006) Acid Value mesuring method (Ref. 0003) (Method 1. 3g) Use 30ml of xylene and 50ml of ethanol as a solvent,and titrate while warm

OPTICAL ROTATION:Saponification Value 46-65 (Ref. 0006) Saponification Value mesuring method (Ref. 0004) Add 0.5N potassium hydroxide-ethanol, then add 20ml of benzene.

DENSITY:

SOLUBILITY:Properties: Candelilla wax is soluble in acetone,benzene and carbon disulfide. It is soluble in petroleum ether, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride when they are hot but only sparingly soluble when they are cold. It is practically insoluble in ether and ethanol when they are cold. (Ref. 0006)
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:IR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0001] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions
Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.)
Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film

NMR SPECTRA:12C-NMR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0002] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions
Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform

MASS SPECTRA:GC/MS Spectrum
[Spectra 0003/0004/0005] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions
Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard )Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. )
Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase.
Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC.
Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute.
Injection temperature: 320degC, Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA
Gas chromatography
[Chromatograms 0001/0002] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions
Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard )
Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ) Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase
Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution
SOURCE
Origin
Candelilla wax is a hard lustrous wax extracted from the outer cover of the candelillaplant (Euphorbiaceae). In the wild state, the candelilla plant is limited to nerthwest Mexico and southern Texas in the United States. Reaching as high as 45degC in summer and as low as -20degC in winter, the seasonal temperature variation in these areas is extreme and they are very arid with little rainfall. To protect itself from such harsh conditions, the candelilla plant secretes a sap with which it covers itself. Candelilla wax is 45% hydrocabons(Hentriacontane, Tritriacontane, etc.) ,29% esters (Sitosterol, Dihydroxymiricinoleic acid, etc.) and 26% free alcohols (Myricyl alcohol, etc.),free fatty acids, lactone and resins. (Ref. 0006)
A method of manufacture
The candelilla wax plants are harvested almost all year round. The cut plants are dried in the sun and sent to a neaeby extraction plant to extract the wax .
The raw wax thus obtained is dull gray in color and is called Cerote. The cerote is then sent to a modern refining facility. (Ref. 0006)
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM

GENETIC INFORMATION

NOTE

REFERENCES
[0001]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0003]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0004]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0005]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0006]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp316-317, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0024]
AUTHOR:Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M.
TITLE:General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap.
VOL:192 PAGE : 79 -89 (1985)
[TOP]

[0025]
AUTHOR: Matsumoto Isao, Ohta Tadao,Takamatsu Tasuku, and Nakano Motokiyo
TITLE:Systematic analysis of natural raw waxes( carnauba wax, candelilla wax and bees wax) and pattern-analysis of carbon chain length of their components
JOURNAL:Nippon Kagaku Kaishi
VOL:5 PAGE : 951 -957 (1972)
[TOP]

[0026]
AUTHOR:Tulloch, A. P.
TITLE:Comparison of some commercial waxes by gas liquid chromatography
JOURNAL:J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc.,
VOL:50 PAGE : 367 -371 (1973)
[TOP]

[0027]
AUTHOR:Jasefina C. Morales und Gustavo Torres E.,
TITLE:Chromatographishe untersuchung des harzanteils im Candelilla-wachs
JOURNAL:Seifen-öle-Fette-Wachse
VOL:99 PAGE : 17 -22 (1973)
[TOP]

[0028]
AUTHOR:Marquez, L. C., Capella, S., and Manjarrez, A.
TITLE:Study of candelilla wax as a partition liquid for gas phase chromatography
JOURNAL:Rev. Soc. Quim. Mex.
VOL:212 PAGE : 50 -55 (1977)
[TOP]

[0029]
AUTHOR:Ashraf-Khorassani M, Taylor L T
TITLE:Analysis of crude, purified, and synthetic candelilla wax using supercritical fluids.
JOURNAL:Liq. Chromatogr. Gas chromatogr.
VOL:84 PAGE : 314 -320 (1990)
[TOP]

[0030]
AUTHOR:Brossard S, Lafosse M, and Dreux M
TITLE:Analyse par CPG et CPS de cires naturelles.
JOURNAL:Parfums Cosmet Aromes
VOL:117 PAGE : 48 -53 (1994)
[TOP]

[0031]
AUTHOR:Kuehn, G., Weidner, ST., Just, U., and Hohner, G.
TITLE:Characterization of technical waxes. Comparison of chromatographic techniques and matrix-assisted laser- desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
JOURNAL:J. Chromatogr.,
VOL:7321 PAGE : 111 -117 (1996)
[TOP]

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