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Wax


DATA No : WWA1201 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Carnauba wax

COMMON NAME: Carnauba wax(Ref. 0007) / (Ref. 0024) / (Ref. 0025) / (Ref. 0030) / (Ref. 0032) / (Ref. 0033) / (Ref. 0034) / (Ref. 0035)
SYMBOL:
FORMULA: Mixture MOL.WT (average) :
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Uses, Carnauba wax is used in lipsticks to raise temperature resistance and give luster and in small amounts in products requiring firmness such as creams, depilatory waxes and deodorant sticks. It is also used in ointment bases, as a lustering agent for tablets and in floor polish.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Melting point 80-86degC (Ref. 0007) (Method 2) (Ref. 0001)

BOILING POINT:Iodine value 5-14 (Ref. 0007) Use 30ml of carbon tetrachloride (Ref. 0005)

REFRACTIVE INDEX:Acid Value Not more than 10 (Ref. 0007) Use 30ml of xylene and 50ml of ethanol as solvent,and titrate while warm. (Method 1. 3g) (Ref. 0003)

OPTICAL ROTATION:Saponification Value 78-95 (Ref. 0007) Add 0.5N potassium hydroxide-ethanol,then add 20ml of benzene. (Ref. 0004)

DENSITY:

SOLUBILITY:Properties
Carnauba wax is typical of the hard waxes that have the highest melting points among waxes of plant origin. It is soluble in chloroform,ether and petroleum benzene when hot but sparingly soluble when it is cold. It is sparingly soluble in hot ethanol and practically insoluble in water. Observed infrared absorption is as follows 1730: uc=o, 1605: uc=c, 1460: ucH, -1175: uc-o of ester, 730 and 720: dcH of -(CH2)n- (Ref. 0007)
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:IR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0006] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.), Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film

NMR SPECTRA:12C-NMR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0007] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform

MASS SPECTRA:GC/MS Spectrum
[Spectra 0008/0009/0010] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard )Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase. Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute.
Injection temperature: 320degC , Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA
Gas chromatography
[Chromatograms 0003/0004] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintainat this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution
SOURCE
Origin
The carnauba palm is a forest tree found in South America, particularly in northern Brazil. It grows naturally or is cultivated and reaches around 10 m in height. The leaves are fan-shaped and the wax is secreted on their surface, especially the under surface. This material consists of wax acid esters, the major component, and the other constituents listed below. (Ref. 0007)
Alkyl Esters of Wax Acids 84-85% , (Simple esters of normal acids 5-6% , Acid esters C18-C30 5-6%, Diesters, 19-21%, Esters of hydroxylated acids, 53-55%), Free Wax Acids 3-3.5%, Lactides 2-3%, Free and Combined Polyhydric and Oxy-Alcohols 2-3%, Resins (alcohol soluble) 4-6% , Hydrocarbons 1.5-3%, Moisture and Mineral Matter 0.5-1%
A method of manufactureThe leaves are harvested between October and February and dried in the sun for several days.
The wax, which forms a powder on the leaf surface, is knocked off and put into hot water. This is then filtered and the molten wax is cooled to harden. Normally, 100 leaves yield 500 g of wax.(Ref. 0007)
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM

GENETIC INFORMATION

NOTE

REFERENCES
[0001]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0003]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0004]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0005]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0007]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp270-271, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0024]
AUTHOR:Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M.
TITLE:General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap.
VOL:192 PAGE : 79 -89 (1985)
[TOP]

[0025]
AUTHOR: Matsumoto Isao, Ohta Tadao,Takamatsu Tasuku, and Nakano Motokiyo
TITLE:Systematic analysis of natural raw waxes( carnauba wax, candelilla wax and bees wax) and pattern-analysis of carbon chain length of their components
JOURNAL:Nippon Kagaku Kaishi
VOL:5 PAGE : 951 -957 (1972)
[TOP]

[0030]
AUTHOR:Brossard S, Lafosse M, and Dreux M
TITLE:Analyse par CPG et CPS de cires naturelles.
JOURNAL:Parfums Cosmet Aromes
VOL:117 PAGE : 48 -53 (1994)
[TOP]

[0032]
AUTHOR:Rowland, I. R., Butterworth, K. R., Gaunt, I. F., Grasso, P., and Gangolli, S. D.
TITLE:Short-term toxicity study of carnauba was in rats PubMed ID:6890026
JOURNAL:Food Chem Toxicol.
VOL:20 PAGE : 467-471 (1982)
[TOP]

[0033]
AUTHOR:Parent, R. A., Re, T. A., Babish, J. G., Cox, G. E., Voss, K. A., and Becci, P. J.
TITLE:Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats PubMed ID:6681798
JOURNAL:Food Chem Toxicol.
VOL:21 PAGE : 89-93 (1983)
[TOP]

[0034]
AUTHOR:Langeloh, G., Petz, M., and Schulte, E.
TITLE:Detection of shellac and carnauba wax on apples by gas chromatography
JOURNAL:Dtsch. Lebensm.-Rundsch
VOL:861 PAGE : 4 -6 (1990)
[TOP]

[0035]
AUTHOR:Ito Seisuke, Suzuki Takashi, and Fujino Yasuhiko
TITLE:Wax lipid in Rice Bran
JOURNAL:Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi
VOL:553 PAGE : 247 -253 (1981)
[TOP]

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