Back to HOME

Wax


DATA No : WWA1501 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Japan wax

COMMON NAME: Japan wax
(Ref. 0013) / (Ref. 0024) / (Ref. 0041) / (Ref. 0042) /(Ref. 0043)/ (Ref. 0044) / (Ref. 0045) / (Ref. 0046) / (Ref. 0047)
SYMBOL:
FORMULA: Mixture MOL.WT (average) :
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Uses
Japan wax is used in pomade,and hair sticks. Apart from cosmetics, it is used in candles, pencils, crayons, as a lustering agents for furnitures.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Melting point 50-53.5degC (Ref. 0013) (Method 2) (Ref. 0001)

BOILING POINT:Iodine Value 5-8 (Ref. 0013) (Ref. 0005)

REFRACTIVE INDEX:Acid Value Not more than 30 (Ref. 0013) (Method 1, 5g) (Ref. 0003)

OPTICAL ROTATION:Saponification Value 205-225 (Ref. 0013) (Ref. 0004)

DENSITY:Specific Gravity d20&20 : 0.96-1.00 (Ref. 0013) (Method 3) (Ref. 0002)

SOLUBILITY:Properties: Japan wax has a pearly luster and is normally in sheet form. It is soluble in chloroform, ether, benzene and carbon disulfide;partially soluble in boiling ethanol, sparingly soluble in cold ethanol and insoluble in water. As Japan wax comes under the fats, it is readily saponified by alkali yielding glycerin with hardly any unsaponifiable matter. (Ref. 0013)
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:IR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0015] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film

NMR SPECTRA:12 C-NMR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0016] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12 C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform

MASS SPECTRA:GC/MS Spectrum
[Spectra 0017 / 0018 / 0019 / 0020] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute.
Injection temperature: 320degC, Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA
Gas chromatography
[Chromatograms 0007/0008] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
SOURCE
Origin:Japan wax is produced by bleaching the fat from the mesocarp of the fruit of the wax tree a member of the lacquer tree species ( Anacardiaceae ). It is bleached in the sun or by some other means. Although this substance chemically different from ordinary waxes because it is produced from a fat, it is still commonly referred to as Japan wax. The Japanese lacquer tree also contains Japan wax. Japan wax was first used as a raw material for ' BINTSUKE', a hair-grooming preparation peculiar to Japan and since the end of Meiji period (1868-1912), ithas been used in haircare cosmetics such as pomades and hair stick. The principal constituents are glycerides of palmitic acid which account for 76-82% of Japan wax. It also contains glycerides of stearic acid (4-6%), glycerides of japanic acid (C21),tricosanedioic acid (C23), etc. (3-6.5%), free acid as palmitic acid, oleic acid, pelargonic acid, etc. (3.7-5.6%) and arachic, ceryl and myricyl alcohol as free alcohol (1.2-1.6%). (Ref. 0013)
A method of manufacture:The wax tree grows wild in large numbers in warm areas of Japan and there are many in the Kyushu area. The fruit are collected between November and February and the wax is extracted from them and refined. The wax is usually extracted by the compression method and the sun's ray, adsorbents or chemical agents are used to decolorize and bleach it. Adsorbents are used in different ways. For example, an adsorbent such as activated charcoal or acid clay is added directly to molten crude wax andthen the adsorbent is separated by filtration ; the crude wax is dissolved in a solvent suchas benzene, an adsorbent is added and after heating and mixing and filtration,the solvent is distilled off; or theprocss is done by chromatography. The following example illustrates how the wax is produced. The fruit obtained from the wax tree are dried and broken into small pieces and steam ispassed through them. Continued to Metabolism
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM
The oils and fats in the fruit are melted and removed by the steam so crude wax can be obtained through cooling and solidification. The yield is around 15% . For decolorization , the following method is often used. First, decolorizing charcoal and water areadded to the crude wax and this is thoroughly boiled. The molten wax is pouredinto cold water to form ""wax flowers""which are collected and exposed to sunlight for 20 days. If necessary, moredecolorizing charcoal and water are added to the wax flowers and they are melted and cooled to producemore waxflowers and the sun bleaching process is repeated. There is also chemical processes; one of them uses hydrogen peroxide. Wax bleached in this way is melted in water, washed in water and then solidified and dried to produce Japan wax. (Ref. 0013)
GENETIC INFORMATION

NOTE

REFERENCES
[0001]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0002]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients. Second Edition (1985) pp594-596, YAKUJI NIPPO, Ltd.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0003]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0004]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0005]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0013]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation ) I (1984) pp1175-1178, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0024]
AUTHOR:Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M.
TITLE:General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap.
VOL:192 PAGE : 79 -89 (1985)
[TOP]

[0041]
AUTHOR:Tsujimoto, M.,
TITLE:Japan wax, Japanese lacquer (urushi) wax
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Chem., Ind. (Japan)
VOL:14 PAGE : 321 -360 (1911)
[TOP]

[0042]
AUTHOR:Tsujimoto, M.,
TITLE:On the fatty acids of Japan wax
JOURNAL:Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan
VOL:10 PAGE : 212 -219 (1935)
[TOP]

[0043]
AUTHOR:Sano, Y., Aikawa, D., and Murase, K.,
TITLE:Studies on the Japan wax by gas-liquid chromatography using a hydrogen flameionization detector
JOURNAL:J.Japan Oil Chemist's Soc.
VOL:136 PAGE : 324 -328 (1964)
[TOP]

[0044]
AUTHOR:Meguro S., Kawachi S.,
TITLE:Some physical properties of haze wax correlated with major fatty acids
JOURNAL:J. Jap. Wood Research Soc.
VOL:358 PAGE : 754 -760 (1989)
[TOP]

[0045]
AUTHOR:Meguro S., Kawachi S.
TITLE:Major fatty acid contents of haze wax.Changes during the growth and storage periods of haze seeds.
JOURNAL:J. Jap. Wood Research Soc.
VOL:362 PAGE : 133 -138 (1990)
[TOP]

[0046]
AUTHOR:Schaal, Richard
TITLE:Über hochschmelzende Säuren des Japan wachses, insondere über Nonadecamethylen-dicarbonsäure.
JOURNAL:Ber.,
VOL:40 PAGE : 4784 -4788 (1907)
[TOP]

[0047]
AUTHOR:Tassilly, M. E.,
TITLE:Alcoolyse de la cire du Japon:
JOURNAL:Bull. Soc. Chim.
VOL:9 PAGE : 608 -615 (1911)
[TOP]

Last updated June 19, 2007. Copyright © 1989-2007 Japanese Conference on the Biochemistry of Lipids (JCBL). All rights reserved.