Back to HOME

Wax


DATA No : WWA2101 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Bees wax

COMMON NAME: Bees wax
(Ref. 0014) / (Ref. 0024)/ (Ref. 0025) /(Ref. 0030) / (Ref. 0048) / (Ref. 0049) / (Ref. 0050) / (Ref. 0051) / (Ref. 0052) / (Ref. 0053) / (Ref. 0054) / (Ref. 0055) / (Ref. 0056)/ (Ref. 0057) / (Ref. 0058)
SYMBOL:
FORMULA: Mixture MOL.WT (average) :
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Uses
Yellow beeswax and white beeswax have been used as a raw material for cosmetics since long ago. Beeswax is an excellent emulsifying agent when used together with borax and it was used for this purpose before the War because surfactants had not been developed yet. It is currently a major oily raw material for cosmetics. White bees wax is a major raw material for creams but yellow beeswax is not used because it would impart color to creams which have to be pure white. So, it is used mainly for such products as makeup cosmetics and hair stick. The reason that beeswax is used for lipsticks and hair stick is that it makes it is easy to mold them into a stick form, gives a soft feeling to the touch and raises the melting point.
It also has a homogenizing and dispersing action on other oils, fats, waxes and coloring materials.
Usage Examples: A) Lipstick (Beeswax 29% , Ozocerite 5%, Carnauba wax 5%, Castor oil 30%, Lanolin 5%, Cacao butter 10%, Glyceryl monostearate 3%, Liquid paraffin 5%, Eosin 1%, Lake 7%, Perfume, antioxidant, etc. qs), B) Hair stick (Bees wax 15%, Castor oil 73%, Japan wax 10%, Perfume, antioxidant, etc. 2%)Beeswax is also used in medical products as an ointment bases or in suppositories, as well as in luster agents, for lost wax process and electrotypy. (Ref. 0014)
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Melting point 60-67degC (Ref. 0014) (Method 2) (Ref. 0001)

BOILING POINT:

REFRACTIVE INDEX:Acid Value 5-9, 17-22 (Ref. 0014) Prepare the solvent with 30ml of xylene and 50ml of ethanol,and titrate while warm. (Method 1, 3g) (Ref. 0003)

OPTICAL ROTATION:Saponification Value 80-100 (Ref. 0014) (Ref. 0004)

DENSITY:

SOLUBILITY:Properties
Bees wax occurs as a yellowish to brownish yellow mass. It has a slightly unusal odor which has hardly any taste. The color of beeswax depends on the plant pollen from which it is made and, like Japanese Pharmacopeia 10, this standard includes colors from yellowish to brownish yellow. Beeswax is a non-crystalline oily solid which is somewhat brittle when cold and its fracture has no luster. Kneading with the fingers softens it and makes it more viscous. Beeswax is soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and vegetable oils,it is sparingly soluble in benzene and carbon disulfide when cold but insoluble in water and mineral oil. (Ref. 0014)
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:IR Spectrum
[Spectra 0021] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.), Resolution: 8 cm-1 , Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film

NMR SPECTRA:12C-NMR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0022] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform

MASS SPECTRA:GC/MS Spectrum
[Spectra 0023/0024/0025/0026/0027/0028] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC.
Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC , Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA
Gaschromatography
[Chromatograms 0009/0010] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes , Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
SOURCE
Origin
Beeswax is made by honey bees ( Apidae). It is secreted by glands in the abdomen of worker bees and used to make the honeycombs of the hive. This material is produced by refining wax from the honeycomb. There are many species of noney bee but the main ones are the European honey bee and the Oriental honey bee. Honey and wax are taken from them in many defferent countries. The European honey bee is widely kept in Europe, Africa, North America and many other parts of the world; it has been kept in Japan since its introduction in the Meiji Period (1868-1912 ). The Oriental honey bee is kept i n China, India and such Southeast Asian countries as Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar. The special feature of the wax produced by them is its low acid value. In addition to the imported European honey bee, the indigenous species Apis indica var japonica radoszkowski is also kept in Japan but the amount of wax produced from it is not very large.
Beeswax was already used as a cold cream in ancient Egypt 4,000 years ago and afterwards its useexpanded as a raw material for cosmetics, medicines, abrasives and so forth. It is now one of the major raw materials used in cosmetics. Though the compositions of Oriental beeswax and European beeswax are a little different, the main components of both are esters of higher fatty acids and higher monohydric alcohols, and they also include free fatty acids, hydrocarbons and other substances.The special features of Oriental beeswax are that it contains glycerides which are not found in European beeswax, it has a large numberof lower alcohols of below C30 and there is only a small amount of free acid. Continued to Metabolism
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM
Oriental beeswax: Ester of monohydric alcohols 78-80% [ Ceryl palmitate (18-20% ), Ceryl -16-hydroxy palmitate (57-58% ), Ceryl-7-hydroxy palmitate (4% )], Glyceride 4% (Saturated and unsaturated glycerides of C14, C16 and C18 acids), Cholesteryl palmitate below 1%, Free wax acid 5-6% (Cerotic acid, Melissic acid, Lacceroic acid, Geddic acid), Hydrocarbone 8-9% (Heptacosane, Nonacosane, Hentriacontane, Melene).

European beeswax: Ester of wax acids 71% (Myricyl palmitate, Laceryl palmitate, Myricyl cerotate, Myricyl hypogaeate, Ceryl hydroxy palmitate, Acid esters, Diesters, Acid diesters, Triesters, Hydroxy diesters), Cholesteryl esters of fatty acids 1% (Cholesteryl isovalerate), Free wax acid 13.5-14.5% [Normal acid: Saturated (Lignoceric acid, Cerotic acid, Montanic acid, Melissic acid, Psyllic acid), Unsaturated ( Hypogaeic acid)] , Hydrocarbones 10.5-13.5% [Saturated ( Pentacosane, Heptacosane, Nonacosane, Hentriacontane), Unsaturated (Melene)] (Ref. 0014) Continued to Genetic Information
GENETIC INFORMATION

A Method of manufacture: The honeycomb is broken up and centrifuged to remove the honey. Hot water is then poured in and the raw wax mejts and floats to the surface. This is usually filtered hot and a heat-insulated filter press is used. When the wax has been filtered and foreign matter removed, it is poured into molds for forming. If the raw wax is not filtered, it is washed repeatedly in the molten state by adding hot water which removes the various foreign matter. It is then poured into molds or left to harden as it is. Foreign matter settles to the bottom in this case so it is removed by cutting off the bottom. (Ref. 0014)
NOTE

REFERENCES
[0001]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0003]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0004]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0014]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984)pp1108-1112, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
[TOP]

[0024]
AUTHOR:Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M.
TITLE:General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap.
VOL:192 PAGE : 79 -89 (1985)
[TOP]

[0025]
AUTHOR: Matsumoto Isao, Ohta Tadao,Takamatsu Tasuku, and Nakano Motokiyo
TITLE:Systematic analysis of natural raw waxes( carnauba wax, candelilla wax and bees wax) and pattern-analysis of carbon chain length of their components
JOURNAL:Nippon Kagaku Kaishi
VOL:5 PAGE : 951 -957 (1972)
[TOP]

[0030]
AUTHOR:Brossard S, Lafosse M, and Dreux M
TITLE:Analyse par CPG et CPS de cires naturelles.
JOURNAL:Parfums Cosmet Aromes
VOL:117 PAGE : 48 -53 (1994)
[TOP]

[0048]
AUTHOR:Ikuta K.
TITLE:Research of Japanese bees wax (No-1)
JOURNAL:Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi
VOL:33 PAGE : 1313 -1318 (1930)
[TOP]

[0049]
AUTHOR:Brueschweiler. H., Felber, Helene, Schwager, F
TITLE:Bees wax-composition and determination of purity by gas chromatographic analysis
JOURNAL:Fett Wiss. Technol.
VOL:912 PAGE : 73 -79 (1989)
[TOP]

[0050]
AUTHOR:Tulloch, A. P., Hoffman, L. L.
TITLE:Canadian bees wax. Analytical values and composition of hydrocarbons, free acids, and long chain esters.
JOURNAL:J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.
VOL:4912 PAGE : 696 -699 (1972)
[TOP]

[0051]
AUTHOR:Markham K. R, Mitchell K. A
TITLE:HPLC and GC-MS identification of the major organic constituents in New Zealand propolis
JOURNAL:Phytochemistry
VOL:421 PAGE : 205 -211 (1996)
[TOP]

[0052]
AUTHOR:Beverly M. B, Kay P. T, and Voorhees K. J
TITLE:Principal component analysis of the pyrolysis-mass spectra from African, Africanized hybrid, and European bees wax.
JOURNAL:J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis
VOL:342 PAGE : 251 -263 (1995)
[TOP]

[0053]
AUTHOR:Greenaway W, May J, Scaysbrook T, and Whatle Y F R
TITLE:Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 150 compounds in propolis.
JOURNAL:Z. Naturforsch Sect C
VOL:46 PAGE : 111 -121 (1991)
[TOP]

[0054]
AUTHOR:Puleo S. L,
TITLE:Bees wax minor components : A new approach
JOURNAL:Cosmet. & Toiletries
VOL:1062 PAGE : 83 -89 (1991)
[TOP]

[0055]
AUTHOR:Brueschweiler H, Felber H, Schwager F
TITLE:Bienewachs- Zusammensetzung und Beurteilung der Reinheit durch gas chromatographische Analyse
JOURNAL:Fett Wiss Technol
VOL:912 PAGE : 73 -79 (1989)
[TOP]

[0056]
AUTHOR:Schulten H. R
TITLE:Natural waxes investigated by soft ionization mass spectrometry.
JOURNAL:Z. Naturforsch. Sect. C
VOL:423 PAGE : 178 -190 (1987)
[TOP]

[0057]
AUTHOR:Hillman, D. E
TITLE:Characterization and analysis of waxes by gel permeation chromatography
JOURNAL:Anal. Chem.
VOL:438 PAGE : 1007 -1013 (1971)
[TOP]

[0058]
AUTHOR:Hawthorne, Steven B., Miller, David J
TITLE:Analysis of commercial waxes using capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-massspectrometry
JOURNAL:J. Chromatogr.
VOL:3882 PAGE : 397 -409 (1987)
[TOP]

Last updated June 19, 2007. Copyright © 1989-2007 Japanese Conference on the Biochemistry of Lipids (JCBL). All rights reserved.