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Wax


DATA No : WWA2301 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Spermaceti

COMMON NAME: Spermaceti (Ref. 0016) / (Ref. 0024) / (Ref. 0040) / (Ref. 0077) / (Ref. 0078) / (Ref. 0079)
SYMBOL:
FORMULA: Mixture MOL.WT (average) :
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Uses
Spemaceti is used as a raw material for cosmetics, candles and octyl alcohol.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Melting point 42-50degC (Ref. 0016) (Method 2) (Ref. 0001)

BOILING POINT:

REFRACTIVE INDEX:Acid Value Not more than 1 (Ref. 0016) (Method 1, 5g) (Ref. 0003)

OPTICAL ROTATION:Saponification Value 118-135 (Ref. 0016) (Ref. 0004)

DENSITY:

SOLUBILITY:Properties
Spermaceti occurs as a white, semitransparent, lustrous substance having a soft feeling to the touch. If left exposed to the air for long periods of time, it becomes yellowish and slightly rancid. Spermaceti is insoluble in water and ethanol when cold. It is soluble in ethanol and acetone when hot as well as in ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide and fatty oils but only sparingly soluble in petroleum benzene.
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:

NMR SPECTRA:

MASS SPECTRA:

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA

SOURCE
Origin : Spermaceti is produced from the wax found in the head cavities of the sperm whale. Largest among the toothed whales or cachalots, the sperm whale can be 20 m long and its skull reaches 7 m in circumference. The wax inside the head cavities occurs as an oily liquid. Spermaceti is also present in small amounts in the subcutaneous fat of the sperm whale and the bottlenose whale( Balaena rostrata). One sperm whale yields at least 3 tons of whale oil and at least 250 kg of spermaceti. The principal constituents of spermaceti is cetyl palmitate ( C15H31COOC16H33) whose content reaches 90%. It also contains small amounts of fatty acid esters and free alcohol as indicated by the following.
(Fatty acid esters 97.5-98%, Cetyl palmitate 90-93%). There are also small amounts of myristyl myristate (1% max. ), cetyl stearate ( 1.1-1.5% ) and cholesteryl palmitate (2-3% ) as well as trace amounts of such substances as C12-C16 fatty acids, cholesterol, oleyl myristate, oleyl oleate, and oleyl palmitoleate. (Ref. 0016)
A method of manufacture: Because the liquid spermaceti in the cranical cavity hardens after the whale has died, it is pumped out together with the oily liquid and separaed from it by filtration or compression in order to obtain crude spermaceti. As the crude spermaceti also contains oils and fats and other impurities, it is washed with hot water, melted, filtered and washed repeatedly with a dilute sodium hydroxide or potassium carbonate solution in order to refine it. (Ref. 0016)
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM

GENETIC INFORMATION

NOTE

REFERENCES
[0001]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[0003]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[0004]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[0016]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp400-402, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[0024]
AUTHOR:Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M.
TITLE:General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap.
VOL:192 PAGE : 79 -89 (1985)
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[0040]
AUTHOR:Spencer, G. F, Plattner, R.D,
TITLE:Compositional analysis of natural wax ester mixtures by Tandem mass spectrometry
JOURNAL:J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.,
VOL:611 PAGE : 90 -94 (1984)
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[0077]
AUTHOR:Carlier, A., Chaigneau, M., Giry, L., Puisieux, F., and Le Hir, A.
TITLE:[Analysis of ointments. VI. Study of the composition of spermaceti by mass spectrometry] PubMed ID:5753173
JOURNAL:Ann Pharm Fr.
VOL:26 PAGE : 599-602 (1968)
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[0078]
AUTHOR:Holloway, P. J.
TITLE:The chromatographic analysis of spermaceti PubMed ID:4386746
JOURNAL:J Pharm Pharmacol.
VOL:20 PAGE : 775-779 (1968)
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[0079]
AUTHOR:Hilditch, T. P., and Lovern, J. A.,
TITLE:The head and blubber oil of the sperm whale I - Quantitative determination of the mixed fatty acid present.
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Chem. Ind.,
VOL:47 PAGE : 105 -111 (1928)
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