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DATA No : WWA4101 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Paraffin

(Ref. 0020) / (Ref. 0024) / (Ref. 0031) / (Ref. 0058)/ (Ref. 0083) / (Ref. 0084) / (Ref. 0085)/ (Ref. 0086) / (Ref. 0087) / (Ref. 0088) / (Ref. 0089) / (Ref. 0090)
FORMULA: Mixture MOL.WT (average) :
Like other mineral raw materials, paraffin is colorless, odorless and inactive, it undergoes no changes in quality or decomposition, is easy to emulsify and low in price. It is therefore used together with oily materials such as animal and plant waxes and synthetic esters in products like creams, lipsticks and hair stick.It is also widely used in such items as ointment bases, shoe polish, candles, lusteringagents and paraffin paper.
MELTING POINT:Melting point 50-70degC (Ref. 0020) (Method 2) (Ref. 0001)





Paraffin occurs as a colorless, white, semitransparent waxlike solid whose surface has an oily feeling like that of grease. It has a crystalline fracture which is often very distinct. It has a characteristic odor, and no taste. The specific gravity is mostly in the 0.89-0.92 range. Paraffin is soluble in ether, benzene, chloroform, petroleum benzene, carbon disulfide and hot fats and oils. At ordinary temperatures, it is not affected by acids or alkalis but at high temperatures, it is decomposed by sulfuric acid, nitric acid, nitric acid,etc. When hot, paraffin reacts with chlorine and sulfur. For instance, melting paraffin and passing chlorine over it produces hydrogen chloride and an oily liquid with a lowered melting point through the chlorine substitution which takes place. Under reduced pressure, it distills with no decomposition. Under normal pressure, it distills at 360degC or above with some decomposition producing low melting point paraffin. When repeatedly heated to 150-200degC in air, paraffin decomposes becoming a colored, odoriferous substance. (Ref. 0020)

[Spectrum 0045] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film .

[Spectrum 0046] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform.


[Chromatograms 0017/0018] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ),Splitless: purge start time 2 min., Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
Origin: In 1809, Fuchs discovered that paraffin was present in petroleum and, in 1830, C.Reichenbach obtained a substance from brown coal tar which was stable in acid or alkali and gave it the name paraffin. The principal constituents are normal paraffins, but paraffin often also contains 2-3% isoparaffin and naphthene. The carbon number ranges from C16-C40 with C20-C30 being particularly common. (Ref. 0020)
A method of manufacture : Paraffin is made by distilling the parafiin-base crude oil in crude oil and subjecting the substance which remains at the end to steam distillation . Vacuum distillation orcontinuous distillation using a Foster pipe still may also be used. The distillate is then cooled usually employing a double steel pipe. The wax containing oil fractionvapor is passed through the inner pipe and a cooling liquid such as calcium chloride or magnesium chloride passed between the pipe in the reverse direction.
Cooling to -6--10degC leaves a solid inside the inner pipe. This is removed and put in a compressing device which separates it into oil, which is extruded, and soft wax. As the extruded oil still contains a small amount of paraffin, it is again cooled in the cooling apparatus and compressed once more. The substance produced by these processes is called 'hard wax' (the paraffin product ). As the soft wax normally contains 45-55% oil, it is subjected to 'sweating' to produce the hard wax. Sweating involves melting the soft wax and placing it in a 'sweating plate'. As soft wax will solidify if allowed to cool, the temperature is steadily raised and the oil is 'sweated out' from between the solid matters and drains away. As the hard wax obtained by separating out the oil in this way contains impurities, it is washed with sulfuric acid at 70-80degC . Continued to Metabolism

It is then washed with sodium hydroxide solution and hot water, dried by blowing dry hot air into it and then decolorized using acid clay as an adsorbent. If it is difficult to achieve complete decolorization, bone black or activated charcoal are used. Complete decolorization is also achieved by hydrogenation using nickel as a catalyst and treatment with acid clay.Another way of removing the oil is to dissolve the stock oil in a solvent such as propane and then, in a cold room, directly evaporate the propane. If the material is kept at low temperature, the solid material will crystallize enabling it to be separated using pressure filtration apparatus. (Ref. 0020)


AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
VOL: PAGE : - ()

AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984)pp800-802, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
VOL: PAGE : - ()

AUTHOR:Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M.
TITLE:General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics
JOURNAL:J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap.
VOL:192 PAGE : 79 -89 (1985)

AUTHOR:Kuehn, G., Weidner, ST., Just, U., and Hohner, G.
TITLE:Characterization of technical waxes. Comparison of chromatographic techniques and matrix-assisted laser- desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
JOURNAL:J. Chromatogr.,
VOL:7321 PAGE : 111 -117 (1996)

AUTHOR:Hawthorne, Steven B., Miller, David J
TITLE:Analysis of commercial waxes using capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-massspectrometry
JOURNAL:J. Chromatogr.
VOL:3882 PAGE : 397 -409 (1987)

AUTHOR:Barker Arthur
TITLE:The chromatographic analysis of refined and synthetic waxes.
JOURNAL:J.Chromatogr. Libr
VOL:56 PAGE : 55 -93 (1995)

AUTHOR:Gruner, Eda; Muurisepp, Aleksander-Mati; Liiv, Milana
TITLE:Chromato-mass spectrometric investigation of the ethanol extract of mineral wax (mumie)
JOURNAL:Eesti Tead. Akad. Toim., Keem
VOL:413 PAGE : 132 -139 (1992)

AUTHOR:Geahchan, A., Le Gren, I., Chambon, P., and Chambon, R.
TITLE:Improved method for determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in pharmacopoeial paraffin and mineral oils PubMed ID:1757422
JOURNAL:J Assoc Off Anal Chem.
VOL:74 PAGE : 968-973 (1991)

AUTHOR:Giles, J.J.
TITLE:The analysis of waxes and greases using high resolution gas chromatography.
JOURNAL:J.Forensic Sci. Soc.
VOL:274 PAGE : 231 -239 (1987)

AUTHOR:Thorpe T.C. G
TITLE:Petroleum waxes: Their use and evaluation for paper packaging.
JOURNAL:J. Inst. Petrol.,
VOL:37 PAGE : 275 -315 (1951)

AUTHOR:Ludwig F. J.
TITLE:Analysis of microcrystalline and paraffin waxes by means of infrared spectra in the molte state.
JOURNAL:Anal. Chem.,
VOL:37 PAGE : 1737 -1741 (1965)

AUTHOR:Levy, E. J. Doyle R. R et al
TITLE:Identification of components in paraffin wax by high temperature gas chromatographyand mass spectrometry.
JOURNAL:Anal. Chem.,
VOL:33 PAGE : 698 -704 (1961)

TITLE:Fischer-Tropsh waxes. Qualitative and quantitative investigation of chain branching.
JOURNAL:J. Appl. Chem.,
VOL:19 PAGE : 230 -234 (1969)

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