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Wax


DATA No : WWA4301 INFORMANT : Ken-ichi Tomita

NAME : Petrolatum

COMMON NAME: Petrolatum/Vaseline
(Ref. 0022) / (Ref. 0092) / (Ref. 0093) / (Ref. 0094) / (Ref. 0095) / (Ref. 0096) / (Ref. 0097) / (Ref. 0098)
SYMBOL:
FORMULA: Mixture MOL.WT (average) :
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Uses
Petrolatum is colorless and odorless and chemically inactive. It is semi-solid, shows strong adhesion and imparts oiliness. Because of these characteristics it is used in pomade, hair cream, hair conditioner and eye shadow.
Usage examples
Pomade: Petrolatum 60%, Paraffin 15%, Liquid paraffin25%, Color & perfume q.s.
Eyeshadow: Petrolatum 75%, Cacao butter 8%, Lanolin 7%, Cetanol 3%, Paraffin 7%, Pigment & preservative q.s.
It is also used in bases for medical products such as hydrophilic ointment, zinc oxid ointment, etc. (Ref. 0022)
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING POINT:Melting point 38-60 degC (Ref. 0022) (Method 3) (Ref. 0001)

BOILING POINT:

REFRACTIVE INDEX:

OPTICAL ROTATION:

DENSITY:

SOLUBILITY:Properties
Petrolatum occurs as a white to pale yellow, homogeneous, ointment-like substance. It is almost odorless and tasteless. As petrolatum is a constituent of petroleum, it is closely related to liquid paraffin and paraffin. However, the major differences between them are that, at normal temperatures, liquid paraffin is a liquid, paraffin a crystalline solid and petrolatum a non-crystalline substance. Petrolatum is considered to be not simply a mixture of liquid paraffin and solid paraffin but to exist as a colloid in which a solid wax forms the external phase and a liquid oil forms the internal phase.Petrolatum is very soluble in ether, petroleum ether and many fatty oils, readily soluble in benzene, carbon disulfide,chloroform and turpentine oil but only sparingly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water. On heating, it becomes a transparent liquid and fluoresces if exposed to ultraviolet light in a dark place. (Ref. 0022)
SPECTRAL DATA
UV SPECTRA:

IR SPECTRA:IR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0049](Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.), Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1, Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film.

NMR SPECTRA:12C-NMR Spectrum
[Spectrum 0050] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform.

MASS SPECTRA:

OTHER SPECTRA:
CHROMATOGRAM DATA
Gaschromatography
[Chromatograms 0021/0022] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes , Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min., Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
SOURCE
Origin :This material was discovered as a constituent of petroleum in 1875 and its initial production was mainly in Pennsylvania in the United States. It was given the name petrolatum and through research on its usage, came to be widely used in ointments and as a raw material for cosmetics. Petrolatum produced from American crude oil consists mainly of hydrocarbons of the paraffin group but it also contains small amounts of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alarger unsaturated hydrocarbon content would lower melting point and make it softer. Some of the principal constituents are Tetracosan (C24H50 ), Hentriacontan (C31H64 ),Dotoriacontan (C32H66 ) and Tetratorinacontan ( C34H64 ). Petrolatum produced from Russian crude oil contains a large amount of naphthene. (Ref. 0022)
A method of manufacture:(1) From paraffin-base cdude oil

In this case the starting material is paraffin-base crude oil which is made by cooling the precipitate or oil of storage tanks containing large amounts of solid paraffins of the methane series of hydrocarbons to 0degC or below. Superheated steam is blown into this material to distill off the low boiling point fraction. This is washed well with sulfuric acid at around 60 degC and then after washing with sodium hydroxide solution and finally with hot water, it is dried and further refined using animal charcoal and decolorizing powder (30-40% animal charcoal obtained as a by -product in the production of yellow prussiate of potash, silicic acid salts and a small amount of iron oxide ). Decolorization may also be carried out using an adsorbent such as acid clay and sometimes passing steam through the material. Depending on the degree of decolorization, either yellow or white petrolatum is obtained. Continued to Metabolidm
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

METABOLISM
(2) From higher cylinder oils
In this case petrolatum is obtained as a by-product in the production of higher cylinder oils with low solidification point (bright stock). For instance, cyrinder stockis dissolved in 2 parts gasoline put into a cooling tank, cooled to below -5degC and left for a while. This produces concentrated and dense substances which settle to the bottom of the tank. These are then separated and the gasoline is recovered by distillation and higher cylinder oil and petrolatum are obtained. As an alternative to this method of cooling and leaving to stand, there is also a high speed separation method using ultra-centrifugation. The crude petrolatum so produced is further refined using adsorbents. (Ref. 0022)
GENETIC INFORMATION

NOTE

REFERENCES
[0001]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[0022]
AUTHOR:The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp1299-1301, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD.
TITLE:
JOURNAL:
VOL: PAGE : - ()
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[0092]
AUTHOR:Spangler, M. D., and Sidhom, M. B.
TITLE:Quantitation of the organic solvent extractables (OSE) of petrolatum and analysis by capillary gas chromatography PubMed ID:8895085
JOURNAL:J Pharm Biomed Anal.
VOL:15 PAGE : 139-143 (1996)
[TOP]

[0093]
AUTHOR:Thoma, K.; Simon, G.; Kraeutle, T
TITLE:Determination of the oil number of petrolatum. part 1. Selection and development of a determination method.
JOURNAL:Pharm. Ind.
VOL:525 PAGE : 619 -622 (1990)
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[0094]
AUTHOR:Thoma, K.; Kraeutle, T.; Simon, G
TITLE:Determination of the oil number of petrolatum. part 2. proposal of a determination method for the German Pharmacopeia.
JOURNAL:Pharm. Ind.
VOL:525 PAGE : 622 -626 (1990)
[TOP]

[0095]
AUTHOR:Faust, Harold R.
TITLE:The thermal analysis of waxes and petrolatums
JOURNAL:Thermochim. Acta
VOL:26 PAGE : 383 -398 (1978)
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[0096]
AUTHOR:Kassebaum, H.; Sucker, H.
TITLE:Characterization of nusaturated hydrocarbons of petrolatum and detection of the absence of carcinogenic compounds, 9: Influence of chemical and physical data on the practical properties of vaseline.
JOURNAL:Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm.
VOL:785 PAGE : 207 -210 (1976)
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[0097]
AUTHOR:Rincker, R.; Sucker, H.
TITLE:Influence of chemical and physical properties on the use of petrolatums. II. Gel and gas chromatographic separation.
JOURNAL:Fette,Seifen, Anstrichm.
VOL:743 PAGE : 181 -184 (1972)
[TOP]

[0098]
AUTHOR:Bogs, U., and Hadj-Abo, F.
TITLE:[Identification of polycyclic aromatic substances in vaseline] PubMed ID:4098820
JOURNAL:Pharmazie.
VOL:25 PAGE : 532-534 (1970)
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