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Lipoprotein

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IdImageCOMMON NAMENAMEDATA No Lipid classINFORMANTSYMBOLFORMULAMOL.WT(average)Download cdx file / Mol format file BIOOGICAL ACTIVITY PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SPECTRAL DATA CHROMATOGRAM DATA SOURCE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS METABOLISM GENETIC INFORMATION NOTE REFERENCES
MELTING POINTBOILING POINTDENSITYREFRACTIVE INDEXOPTICAL ROTATIONSOLUBILITY UV SPECTRAIR SPECTRANMR SPECTRAMASS SPECTRAOTHER SPECTRA
1
b-lipoprotein low density lipoprotein TLP1001LipoproteinKazuo KondoLDL 0.000Biological Activities
In normolipidemia, LDL transports 60 to 70 percent of the total plasma cholesterol. Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that LDL cholesterol levels show a positive correlation with coronary heart disease (CHD).<< Ref. 1008/1009/1010/1011/1012>>
Definition
LDL is defined as the lipoprotein fraction with the density range of 1.019 to 1.063 g/ml.<< Ref. 1001>>
1.019-1.063 g/ml Physical properties
Particle weight 2.5times106 , Diameter(nm) 19-25
Relative weight Composition (%)
Protein 20-25 Phospholipid 20-25 Free cholesterol 6-10 Cholesteryl ester 35-45 Triglyceride6-12
Apolipoproteincontribution (%) apo B 90-95 apo C Trace apo E Trace<< Ref. 1006>>
LDL in Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
In agarose gel electrophoresis LDL migrates at the same position as b-globulins, thus LDL is designated b-lipoprotein.
Fig.1 through 4: Electrophorograms above electrophoretic patterns of anodically migrating lipoprotein fractions.
Fig.1: Red 7B stained lipoproteins.
Fig.2: Formazan dye developed cholesterol fractions.
Fig.3: Formazan dye developed triglyceride fractions
Fig.4: Fig.2 and Fig.3 superimporsed. Demonstrate relative positions and enabling ratio assessment of all triglyceride and choresterol fractions, including Lp(a), Lipo X, slowa, IDL, and b-VLDL.[Chromatogram 1001]
Structure and Composition of LDL
LDL is a spherical particle and in normal individuals ranges 20.0 to 23.0 nm in diameter. The average molecular weight is 2.3times106. Compared with other lipoproteins, LDL particles are relatively homogeneous in size and composition, however, LDL particles can be separated into several subfractions of increasing density and decreasing size. LDL consists of protein (20-25%), phospolipid (20-25%), free cholesterol (6-10% ), cholesterol ester (35-45%) and triglyceride (6-12%). Apo B-100 is the sole constituent apolipoprotein on LDL. It is presumed that the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides form the hydrophobic core, which is surrounded by a surface coat of apolipoprotein B, free cholesterol and polar phospholipid components oriented toward the aqueous medium.[Table 2001] << Ref. 1001/1002/1003/1004/1005/1006/1007/1015/1207>>
Metabolism of LDL
LDL particles are mainly derived from the catabolism of VLDL. Lipoprotein lipase(LPL) hydrolyzes most of triglycerides of VLDL. Concequently, VLDL is converted into IDL. A portion of IDL particles are removed to the liver via LDL receptor. Moreover, triglycerides of the remainder of IDL particles are hydrolyzed by hepatic triglycerides lipase (HTGL) and IDL is converted into LDL. LDL is taken in cells via LDL receptor on peripheral tissues and supplies cholesterols to cells. LDL is cleared from plasma via LDL receptor, predominantly in the liver.<< Ref. 1001/1007/1013/1014/1015/1207>>
<< Ref.1001 >> AUTHOR: Gotto,A.M. Jr., Pownall,H.J., and Havel,R.J. (1986) Introduction to the Plasma Lipoproteins, in Methods in Enzymology vol.128 (Segrest,J.P. and Albers,J.J., eds),pp3-41, Academic Press, London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1002 >> AUTHOR: Lee, D. M., and Alaupovic, P. TITLE: Studies of the composition and structure of plasma lipoproteins. Isolation, composition, and immunochemical characterization of low density lipoprotein subfractions of human plasma PubMed ID:4987416 JOURNAL: Biochemistry. VOLUME: 9 PAGE: 2244-2252(1970)
<< Ref.1003 >> AUTHOR: Alaupovic,P., Lee,D.M., and WcConathy, W.J. TITLE: Studies on the composition and structure of plasma lipoproteins. Distribution oflipoprotein families in major density classes of normal human plasma lipoproteins. PubMed ID:4337564 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Acta VOLUME: 260 PAGE: 689 -707 (1972)
<< Ref.1004 >> AUTHOR: Deckelbaum, R. J., Shipley, G. G., and Small, D. M. TITLE: Structure and interactions of lipids in human plasma low density lipoproteins PubMed ID:188825 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 252 PAGE: 744-754(1977)
<< Ref.1005 >> AUTHOR: Shen, M. M., Krauss, R. M., Lindgren, F. T., and Forte, T. M. TITLE: Heterogeneity of serum low density lipoproteins in normal human subjects PubMed ID:7240955 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 22 PAGE: 236-244(1981)
<< Ref.1006 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S. (1991) Plasma Lipoproteins : Structure, Composition, Classification, and Metabolism, in Primary Hyperlipoproteinemias (Steiner,G. and Shafrir,E., eds),pp23-41, McGraw-Hill, U.S.A TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1007 >> AUTHOR: Grundy,S.M. (1992) Role of Low -density Lipoproteins in Development of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis, in Plasma Lipoproteins and Coronary Artery Disease (Kreisberg ,R.A. and Segrest, J.P., eds), pp93-124, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1008 >> AUTHOR: Kannel, W. B., Castelli, W. P., and Gordon, T. TITLE: Cholesterol in the prediction of atherosclerotic disease. New perspectives based on the Framingham study PubMed ID:217290 JOURNAL: Ann Intern Med. VOLUME: 90 PAGE: 85-91(1979)
<< Ref.1009 >> AUTHOR: Wilson, P. W., Garrison, R. J., Castelli, W. P., Feinleib, M., McNamara, P. M., and Kannel, W. B. TITLE: Prevalence of coronary heart disease in the Framingham Offspring Study: role of lipoprotein cholesterols PubMed ID:7416024 JOURNAL: Am J Cardiol. VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 649-654(1980)
<< Ref.1010 >> AUTHOR: Kannel, W. B., Gordon, T., and Castelli, W. P. TITLE: Role of lipids and lipoprotein fractions in atherogenesis: the Framingham study PubMed ID:7342099 JOURNAL: Prog Lipid Res. VOLUME: 20 PAGE: 339-348(1981)
<< Ref.1011 >> AUTHOR: Assmann,G. (1982) Low-Density Lipoproteins and Atherogenesis, in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis (Assmann,G., eds), pp76-80,Schattauer, Germany TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1012 >> AUTHOR: Castelli, W. P., Anderson, K., Wilson, P. W., and Levy, D. TITLE: Lipids and risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Study PubMed ID:1342260 JOURNAL: Ann Epidemiol. VOLUME: 2 PAGE: 23-28(1992)
<< Ref.1013 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S., Bilheimer,D.W., Levy,R.I., and Lindgren,F.T. TITLE: On the metabolic conversion of human plasma very low density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein. PubMed ID:4359865 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Acta VOLUME: 326 PAGE: 361 -377 (1973)
<< Ref.1014 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg ,S., and Levy,R.I. TITLE: Lipoprotein metabolism. PubMed ID:174409 JOURNAL: Adv. Lipid Res. VOLUME: 13 PAGE: 1 -89 (1975)
<< Ref.1015 >> AUTHOR: Jacson,R.l., Morrisett,J.D., and Gotto,A.M.Jr. TITLE: Lipoprotein structure and metabolism. JOURNAL: Physiol.Rev. VOLUME: 56 PAGE: 259 -316 (1976)
<< Ref.1207 >> AUTHOR: Assmann,G. (1982) Biochemistry of Lipoproteins, in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis (Assmann,G., eds), pp14-53,Schattauer, Germany TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
2
a- lipoprotein high density lipoprotein TLP1201LipoproteinKazuo KondoHDL 0.000Biological Activity HDL
Approximately 25% of the total cholesterol in plasma is contained in HDL particles.HDL particles transport cholesterol from peripheral cells to other lipoproteins and the liver.Many epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between the prevalence of coronary heart disease(CHD) and the level of HDL cholesterol.<< Ref. 1208/1209/1210/1211>>
Definition of HDL
High density lipoprotein (HDL) is defined as the lipoprotein fraction with a density range between 1.063 to 1.21 g/ml. The HDL fraction comprises two major fractions : HDL2 (1.063-1.125 g/ml) and HDL3 (1.125-1.21 g/ml).<< Ref. 1001>>
HDL2 : 1.063-1.125 g/ml, HDL3 : 1.125-1.210 g/ml Physical properties
Particle weight HDL2: 3.6times105, HDL3: 1.75times105, Diameter (nm) HDL2 : 8-11, HDL3 : 6-9
Relative weight composition (%)
HDL2 : Protein 35-40 Phospholipid 30-40 Free cholesterol 4-6 Cholesteryl ester 15-20 Triglyceride 3-6, HDL3 : Protein 45-55 Phospholipid 25-35 Free cholesterol 1-3 Cholesteryl ester 8-15 Triglyceride 3-6
Apolipoprotein contribution (%) HDL2 : apo A-I 65 apo A-II 10 apo C 10-15 apo E 3-5, HDL3 : apo A-I 62 apo A-II 23 apo A-IV Trace apo C 5 apo E 1 << Ref. 1006>>
HDL in agarose gel electrophoresis
In agarose gel electrophoresis HDL migrates at the same position as a-globulins; thus HDL is designated a-lipoprotein.
Fig.1 through 4: Electrophorograms above electrophoretic patterns of anodically migrating lipoprotein fractions.
Fig.1: Fat Red 7B stained lipoproteins.
Fig.2: Formazan dye developed cholesterol fractions.
Fig.3: Formazan dye developed triglyceride fractions
Fig.4: Fig.2 and Fig.3 superimporsed. Demonstrate relative positions and enabling ratio assessment of all triglyceride and choresterol fractions, including Lp(a), Lipo X, slowa,IDL,andb-VLDL.[Chromatogram 1001]
Classification of HDL
The HDL fraction consists of heterogeneous particles differentiated by particle size, chemical composition and physicochemical properties and are separated into three main subfractions differentiated by density: HDL1 (1.055-1.085 g/ml), HDL2 (1.063-1.125 g/ml) and HDL3 (1.125-1.21 g/ml). HDL2 and HDL3 are major fractions. HDL1 is a minor fraction and contains apolipoprotein E (apo E) as its main protein component and is mainly observed in humans who have ingested a high-cholesterol diet for several weeks.
These subfractions are separated into other subclasses according to size by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE). Two have migration distances (RF values) in the range associated with HDL2 and three in the RF range of HDL3. Mean hydrated densities and particle sizes of these subfractions are 1.085 g/ml and 10.57 nm for (HDL2b)gge, 1.115 g/ml and 9.16 nm for (HDL2a)gge, 1.136 g/ml and 8.44 nm for (HDL3a)gge, 1.154 g/ml and 7.97 nm for (HDL3b)gge, and 1.171 g/ml and 7.62 nm for (HDL3c)gge.
HDL can be fractionated into LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II, differentiated by the constituent apolipoproteins using affinity columns containing antibodies specific for apo A-I and apo A-II. LpA-I contains apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) but not apolipoprotein A-II (apo A-II) and LpA-I/A-II contains both apo A-I and apo A-II. Some evidences suggests that LpA-I can promote cholesterol efflux from cells but LpA-I/A-II is less effective. Pre-b-HDL is a minor fraction of LpA-I, migrating in the pre-b position on agarose gel electrophoresis. Pre-b-HDL is considered the initial acceptor of cellular cholesterol.<< Ref. 1201/1202/1203/1204/1205>>
Composition and Structure of HDL
The average molecular weight of HDL2 is 3.6times105 and consists of protein (35-40%), phospholipid (30-40%), free cholesterol (4-6%), cholesteryl ester (15-20%) and triglyceride (3-6%). The average molecular weight of HDL3 is 1.75times105 and consists of protein (45-55%),phospholipid (25-35%), free cholesterol (1-3%), cholesteryl ester (8-15%) and triglyceride (3-6%). The ratio of phosphatidyl choline to sphingomyelin and that of free to estetified cholesterol is greater for HDL2 than for HDL3.Approximately 90% of the constituent apolipoproteins on HDL2 and HDL3 are apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) .Apolipoprotein C (apo C),apo E and apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) are found in small quantities. The relative proportion of apoA-I and apo A-II varies in the HDL subfractions . Preparation by zonal ultracentrifugation shows an apo A-I/apo A-II molar ratio of 9:1 in the HDL2 fraction and 2:1 in the HDL3 fraction.
HDL particles are secreted as discoidal particles or small spherical particles. Discoidal HDL consists of phospholipid and some unesterified cholesterol organized as a lipid bilayer associated with apo A-I.The discoidal particles are designated nascent HDL, and are transformed into spherical particles by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) reaction.In all of the sub fractions , HDL exists as spherical particles which contain the same chemical constituents,but differ in particle size, density and stoichiometry.The structure of HDL is presumed to comprise cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in the hydrophobic core, surrounded by a surface coat of apo A-I,apo A-II ,phosphatidyl choline and sphingomyelin oriented toward the aqueous medium.[Table 2001] << Ref. 1001/1003/1005/1006/1206/1207>>
Metabolism of HDL
HDL precursors are secreted from the liver and intestine, or derived from surface fragments originating by lipolysis of chylomicrons and VLDL. These particles consists of phospholipid and some unesterified cholesterol organized as a lipid bilayer associated with apo A-I. Apo A-I is an activator of the lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT). HDL precursors acquire unesterified cholesterol from cell membranes, incorporate cholesteryl esters into their cores by the LCAT reaction, and become mature HDL particles ( HDL precursorsa_rightHDL3a_rightHDL2). Cholesteryl esters of HDL are transferred to apo B containing lipoproteins by the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and exchanged for their triglycerides. Then triglycerides of HDL are hydrolyzed by hepatic lipase, the HDL particles become smaller, more dense particles that are donors for further transfer of cholesteryl esters. These processes are part of the Reverse Cholesterol Transport system. Cholesteryl esters transferred to apo B containing lipoproteins are endocytosed with those particles in the liver by receptor-mediated processes involving the LDL and chylomicron remnant receptors. Moreover it appears that another pathway exists for the transport of cholesteryl ester to liver: HDL particles transport cholesterol directly to hepatocyte by receptor-mediated endocytosis. It is postulated that HDLwith apo E is ultimately taken up into the liver via an apo E receptor (remnant receptor), and HDL without apo E is ultimately taken up via the HDL receptor. Cholesterol taken up into the liver is finally made available for the synthesis of bile acids.<< Ref. 1001/1006/1207>>
<< Ref.1001 >> AUTHOR: Gotto,A.M. Jr., Pownall,H.J., and Havel,R.J. (1986) Introduction to the Plasma Lipoproteins, in Methods in Enzymology vol.128 (Segrest,J.P. and Albers,J.J., eds),pp3-41, Academic Press, London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1003 >> AUTHOR: Alaupovic,P., Lee,D.M., and WcConathy, W.J. TITLE: Studies on the composition and structure of plasma lipoproteins. Distribution oflipoprotein families in major density classes of normal human plasma lipoproteins. PubMed ID:4337564 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Acta VOLUME: 260 PAGE: 689 -707 (1972)
<< Ref.1005 >> AUTHOR: Shen, M. M., Krauss, R. M., Lindgren, F. T., and Forte, T. M. TITLE: Heterogeneity of serum low density lipoproteins in normal human subjects PubMed ID:7240955 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 22 PAGE: 236-244(1981)
<< Ref.1006 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S. (1991) Plasma Lipoproteins : Structure, Composition, Classification, and Metabolism, in Primary Hyperlipoproteinemias (Steiner,G. and Shafrir,E., eds),pp23-41, McGraw-Hill, U.S.A TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1201 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S. (1988) Regulation of HDL Subpopulation Distribution, in High Density Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis II (Miller.N.E., eds), pp149-157, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1202 >> AUTHOR: Nichols,A.V., Gong,E.L., Blanche,P.J., and Forte,T.M. (1988) HDL Populations: Origins and Interconversions, in High Density Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis II (Miller.N.E., eds), pp159-171, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1203 >> AUTHOR: Albers, J.J., and Cheung,M.C. (1988) Intravascular Metabolism of HDL Subclasses, in High Density Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis II (Miller.N.E., eds), pp173-179, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1204 >> AUTHOR: Barter,P.J., Hopkins, Rajaram,O.V., and Rye,K.-A. (1988) Plasma Factors Involved in the Formation of Very Small HDL Particles, in High Density Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis II (Miller.N.E., eds), pp181-188, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1205 >> AUTHOR: Blanche, P. J., Gong, E. L., Forte, T. M., and Nichols, A. V. TITLE: Characterization of human high-density lipoproteins by gradient gel electrophoresis PubMed ID:7295744 JOURNAL: Biochim Biophys Acta. VOLUME: 665 PAGE: 408-419(1981)
<< Ref.1206 >> AUTHOR: Kane,J.P. (1992) High-density Lipoproteins, in Plasma Lipoproteins and Coronary Artery Disease (Kreisberg,R.A. and Segrest,J.P., eds), pp125-150, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1207 >> AUTHOR: Assmann,G. (1982) Biochemistry of Lipoproteins, in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis (Assmann,G., eds), pp14-53,Schattauer, Germany TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1208 >> AUTHOR: Assmann,G. (1982) High -Density Lipoproteins and Atherogenesis, in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis (Assmann,G., eds), pp81-100,Schattauer, Germany TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.1209 >> AUTHOR: Miller, G. J., and Miller, N. E. TITLE: Plasma-high-density-lipoprotein concentration and development of ischaemic heart-disease PubMed ID:46338 JOURNAL: Lancet. VOLUME: 1 PAGE: 16-19(1975)
<< Ref.1210 >> AUTHOR: Gordon, T., Castelli, W. P., Hjortland, M. C., Kannel, W. B., and Dawber, T. R. TITLE: High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart disease. The Framingham Study PubMed ID:193398 JOURNAL: Am J Med. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 707-714(1977)
<< Ref.1211 >> AUTHOR: Miller, N. E., Thelle, D. S., Forde, O. H., and Mjos, O. D. TITLE: The Tromso heart-study. High-density lipoprotein and coronary heart-disease: a prospective case-control study PubMed ID:67464 JOURNAL: Lancet. VOLUME: 1 PAGE: 965-968(1977)
3
pre b lipoprotein very low density lipoprotein TLP1301LipoproteinKazuo KondoVLDL 0.000Biological activities
VLDL is the major vehicle in the plasma which carries triacylglycerol synthesized in the liver to peripheral tissues for utilization. .
<< Ref. 1307>>
Definition
VLDL is defined as the lipoprotein fraction with the density range of 0.93 to1.006 g/ml.
<< Ref. 1301>>
0.93 to1.006 g/ml
<< Ref. 1301>>
Physical properties
Particle weight 8times107 Diameter nm 30-80
Relative weght Composition (%) of Human Plasma Lipoproteins
Protein 10% Phospholipid 19% Free cholesterol 7.3% Cholesterol ester 4.6% Triglyceride 56%
Apolipoprotein contribution% apoB 37 apoC 50 apoE13
<< Ref. 1301>>
VLDL on agarose gel electrophoresis
In agarose gel electrophoresis, VLDL migrate at the same position of preb-globulins, thus VLDL is designated preb-lipoprotein.
Structure of VLDL
VLDL is spherical particle and in normal individuals ranges 30 to 80 nm in diameter. The molecular weight is 10 to 8times107. Compare with LDL particles, VLDL particles are heterogeneous in size and composition. VLDL particls can be separated in Sf 20-60 and Sf60-400. VLDL consists of protein 10%, phospholipid 19%, free cholesterol 7%, cholesterol ester 10% and triglycerides 56%. Apolipoprotein contribution% apoB 37 apoC 50 apoE 13 Apo B-48 is the sole constituent apolipoprotein on VLDL.It is presumed that the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides form the hydrophobic core, which is surrounded by a surface coat of apolipoprotein B, free cholesterol and polar phospholipid components oriented toward the aqueous medium.
<< Ref. 1301/1302/1303/1304/1305/1306>>
Metabolism of VLDL
VLDL is syncesized by the liver. VLDL is the major vehicle in the plasma which carries triacylglycerol synthesized in the liver to peripheral tissues for utilization. VLDL is catabolized by lipoprotein lipase. Concequently,VLDL is converted into IDL. The VLDL remnants are taken up into the liver via the LDL receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein.
<< Ref. 1301/1307>>
<< Ref.1301 >> AUTHOR: Gotto,A.M. Jr., Pownall,H.J. and Havel,R.L. TITLE: Introduction to the Plasma Lipoproteins. PubMed ID:3523141 JOURNAL: Methods Enzymol. VOLUME: 128 PAGE: 3 -41 (1986)
<< Ref.1302 >> AUTHOR: Alaupovic,P., Lee,D.M., and WcConathy, W.J. TITLE: Studies on the Composition and Structure of Plasma Lipoproteins. Distribution of Lipoprotein Families in Major Density Classes of Normal Human Plasma Lipoproteins. PubMed ID:4337564 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Acta VOLUME: 260 PAGE: 689 -707 (1972)
<< Ref.1303 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,SSteiner,G. and Shafrir,E. TITLE: Plasma Lipoproteins : Structure,Composition,Classification and Metabolism in Primary Hyperlipoproteinemias. JOURNAL: McGraw-Hill VOLUME: PAGE: 23 -41 (1991)
<< Ref.1304 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S., Bilheimer,D.W., Levy,R.I.,and Lindgren,F.T. TITLE: On the Metabolic Conversion of Human Plasma Very Low Density Lipoprotein to Low Density Lipoprotein. PubMed ID:4359865 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Acta VOLUME: 326 PAGE: 361 -377 (1973)
<< Ref.1305 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S., and Levy,R.I. TITLE: Lipoprotein Metabolism. PubMed ID:174409 JOURNAL: Adv Lipid Res. VOLUME: 13 PAGE: 1 -89 (1975)
<< Ref.1306 >> AUTHOR: Jacson,R.l.,Morrisett,J.D. and Gotto,A.M.Jr. TITLE: Lipoprotein Structure and Metabolism. JOURNAL: Physiol.Rev. VOLUME: 56 PAGE: 259 -316 (1976)
<< Ref.1307 >> AUTHOR: Janero, D. R., Siuta-Mangano, P., Miller, K. W., and Lane, M. D. TITLE: Synthesis, processing, and secretion of hepatic very low density lipoprotein PubMed ID:6373801 JOURNAL: J Cell Biochem. VOLUME: 24 PAGE: 131-152(1984)
4
Chylomicrons Chylomicrons TLP1401LipoproteinKazuo Kondochylos 0.000Biological activities
Chylomicrons transport dietary triglyceride from the intestine to peripheral tissues and cholesterol to the liver.
<< Ref. 1406>>
Defination
Chylomicrons is defined as the lipoprotein fraction with the density below 0.93
<< Ref. 1401>>
below 0.93 g/ml
<< Ref. 1401>>
Physical properties
Particle weight below 4times108 Diameter nm 75-1200
Relative weght Composition (%) of Human Plasma Lipoproteins
Protein 1-2% Phospholipid 19% Free cholesterol 1.6% Cholesterol ester 1.4% Triglyceride %
Apolipoprotein contribution% apoB 5-20 apoC 70-80 apo E4
<< Ref. 1401>>
Chylomicrons on agarose gel electrophoresis
In agarose gel electrophoresis Chylomicrons remains at origin.
Structure of Chylomicrons
Chylomicrons is a spherical particle and in normal individuals ranges 75 to 1200 nm in diameter. The average molecular weight is below 4times108 .Compared with other lipoproteins , Chylomicrons particles are relatively heterogeneous in size and composition . Chylomicrons consists of Protein 1-2% Phospholipid 19% Free cholesterol 1.6% Cholesterol ester 1.4% Triglyceride 88%
Apolipoprotein contribution% apoB 5-20 (mainly apoB48) apoC 70-80 apoE 4 on Chylomicrons. It is presumed that the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides form the hydrophobic core, which is surrounded by a surface coat of apolipoprotein B48, free cholesterol and polar phospholipid components oriented toward the aqueous medium.
<< Ref. 1401/1402/1403/1404/1405>>
Metabolism of Chylomicrons
Chylomicrons are formed in the intestine and transport dietary triglyceride to peripheral tissues and cholesterol to the liver. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase, with apolipoprotein (apo)C-II as a co-factor, hydrolyzes chylomicron triglyceride allowing the delivery of free fatty acids to muscle and adipose tissue. As a result, a new particle called a chylomicron remnant is formed.The chylomicron remnants are rapidly taken up into the liver via the LDL receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein.
<< Ref. 1401/1406/1407>>
<< Ref.1401 >> AUTHOR: Gotto,A.M. Jr., Pownall,H.J. and Havel,R.L. TITLE: Introduction to the Plasma Lipoproteins. PubMed ID:3523141 JOURNAL: Methods Enzymol. VOLUME: 128 PAGE: 3 -41 (1986)
<< Ref.1402 >> AUTHOR: Alaupovic,P., Lee,D.M., and WcConathy, W.J. TITLE: Studies on the Composition and Structure of Plasma Lipoproteins. Distribution of Lipoprotein Families in Major Density Classes of Normal Human Plasma Lipoproteins. PubMed ID:4337564 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Acta VOLUME: 260 PAGE: 689 -707 (1972)
<< Ref.1403 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S. Steiner,G. and Shafrir,E., eds. TITLE: Plasma Lipoproteins : Structure,Composition,Classification and Metabolism in Primary Hyperlipoproteinemias. JOURNAL: McGraw-Hill VOLUME: PAGE: 23 -41 (1991)
<< Ref.1404 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg,S., and Levy,R.I. TITLE: Lipoprotein Metabolism. PubMed ID:174409 JOURNAL: Adv Lipid Res. VOLUME: 13 PAGE: 1 -89 (1975)
<< Ref.1405 >> AUTHOR: Jacson,R.l.,Morrisett,J.D. and Gotto,A.M.Jr. TITLE: Lipoprotein Structure and Metabolism. JOURNAL: Physiol.Rev. VOLUME: 56 PAGE: 259 -316 (1976)
<< Ref.1406 >> AUTHOR: Cooper, A. D. TITLE: Hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants PubMed ID:9392416 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 38 PAGE: 2173-2192(1997)
<< Ref.1407 >> AUTHOR: Beisiegel, U. TITLE: Lipoprotein metabolism PubMed ID:9519338 JOURNAL: Eur Heart J. VOLUME: 19 Suppl A PAGE: A20-23(1998)
5
remnant like particles TLP2001LipoproteinKazuo KondoRLP 0.000Download ChemDraw structure dataBiological Activities
Inhibition of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation
Enhancement of platelet aggregation in whole blood
Uptake by macrophages without modification.
Acceleration of proliferation of smooth muscle cells.
<< Ref. 2002/2003/2004/2005>>
Definition
RLP is an abbreviation given to remnant like lipoprotein particles,which do not bind to the anti apo A-I monoclonal antibody (H-12), anti apo B-100 monoclonal antibody (JI-H) conjugated Sepharose-4B.
Physical properties
main Diameter nm 30-80
Relative weight composition %
Protein 7-10 Phospholipid 17-21 Free cholesterol 6-8 Cholesteryl ester 6-23 Triglyceride 41-61
Apolipoprotein contribution % apoB 3-6 apoCIII 13-19 apo E 29-32
Characterization
RLP is an abbreviation given to rremnant like lipoprotein particles, which do not bind to the anti apo A-I monoclonal antibody (H-12), anti apo B-100 monoclonal antibody (JI-H) conjugated Sepharose-4B.
Greater than 97% of the LDL and HDL were removed from the serum by the antibodies. Most VLDL are also removed from the serum but chylomicron-derived particles containing apo B-48 remain in the supernatant, together with a minor fraction of VLDL particles containing apo B-100. Both of these particles populations have been shown to be enriched in apo E.
The epitope of the apo B-100 monoclonal antibody has been localized to an amphipathic helical region of apo B-100 encompassing residues 2291-2318, i.e., at about B-51.
The serum concentrations of remnant-like particles are routinely determined in the supernate as RLP-cholesterol and RLP-triglycerides.RLP-cholesterol and RLP-triglycerides increase in patients with atherosclerotic diseases. An increase of RLP-cholesterol in blood is a risk factor for atherosclerosis.
[Table 2001] << Ref. 2006>>
Remnant like Particles (RLP)
Remnant like particles are isolated almost free of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) by use of an immunoafinity matrix in which Monoclonal antibody (Mab) JI-H and a Mab to apo A-I are bound to agarose beads. Mab (JI-H) recognizes an epitope in the region of apo B-51. Mab (JI-H) binds to LDL and most Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), but not to a minor fraction of TRL particles containing apo B-100 that is enriched in apo E. The RLP is enriched in apo E and contain more cholesterol esters and free cholesterol than those bind to Mab JI-H. The electrophoretic mobility of RLP is reduced, as compared with the bound very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). In normolipidemic human subjects, the RLP account for about 15% of the total apo B in TRL. The particles are homogeneous in size (30-80 nm) and composition.RLP reflect chyromocron remnants and VLDL remnants.
<< Ref. 2001>>
<< Ref.2001 >> AUTHOR: Havel,R.J. (1998) Trigryceride-Rich Lipoprotein Remnants, in Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing (Rifai,N., Warnick,G.R., and Dominiczak,M.H., eds), pp451-464, AACC Press, Washington, DC TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.2002 >> AUTHOR: Doi, H., Kugiyama, K., Ohgushi, M., Sugiyama, S., Matsumura, T., Ohta, Y., Nakano, T., Nakajima, K., and Yasue, H. TITLE: Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation PubMed ID:9622277 JOURNAL: Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 137 PAGE: 341-349(1998)
<< Ref.2003 >> AUTHOR: Knofler, R., Nakano, T., Nakajima, K., Takada, Y., and Takada, A. TITLE: Remnant-like lipoproteins stimulate whole blood platelet aggregation in vitro PubMed ID:7482433 JOURNAL: Thromb Res. VOLUME: 78 PAGE: 161-171(1995)
<< Ref.2004 >> AUTHOR: Saniabadi, A. R., Umemura, K., Shimoyama, M., Adachi, M., Nakano, M., and Nakashima, M. TITLE: Aggregation of human blood platelets by remnant like lipoprotein particles of plasma chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins PubMed ID:9184417 JOURNAL: Thromb Haemost. VOLUME: 77 PAGE: 996-1001(1997)
<< Ref.2005 >> AUTHOR: Tomono, S., Kawazu, S., Kato, N., Ono, T., Ishii, C., Ito, Y., Shimizu, M., Shimoyama, M., Nakano, T., and Nakajima, K. TITLE: Uptake of remnant like particles (RLP) in diabetic patients from mouse peritoneal macrophages PubMed ID:9222876 JOURNAL: J Atheroscler Thromb. VOLUME: 1 PAGE: 98-102(1994)
<< Ref.2006 >> AUTHOR: Nakajima,K., Okazaki,M., Tanaka,A., Pullinger,CR., Wang,T., Nakano,T., Adachi,M., and Havel,R.J. TITLE: Separation and Determination of Remnant-like Particles in Human Serum Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Apo B-100 and Apo A-I. JOURNAL: J.Clin. Ligand Assay VOLUME: 19 PAGE: 177 -183 (1996)
6
lipoprotein (a) TLP3001LipoproteinKazuo KondoLp(a) 0.000Biological activities
There is substantial evidence for an association between serum Lp(a) concentration and myocardial infarction. Most of this evidence is from case control rather than prospective studies. There is also evidence that serum Lp(a) is related to the extent of coronary artery disease assessed angiographically. It is often stated that Lp(a) is a strong independent indicator of coronary heart disease risk. << Ref. 3009/3010/3011>>
Definition
Lp(a) can be defined as a lipoprotein particle having as a protein moiety apolipoprotein B-100(the protein associated with low-density lipoprotein) disulfide-linked to apolipoprotein(a), the distinctive glycoprotein of Lp(a) that is homologous to plasminogen<< Ref. 3001/3002/3003/3004>>
Physical properties
Mean Diameter 21-26 nm
Relative weight composition %
Protein30.9}0.8 Phospholipid 19.0}0.2 Free cholesterol 7.9}1.8 Cholesterol ester 37.1}1.6 Triglyceride 8.0}5.3
Density
1.05-1.21g/mL<< Ref. 3005>>
Western blotting
Fig.Western blotting of Lp(a) phenotypes and antisera[Chromatogram 3001]
Characterization
Lp(a) particles, first identified in human plasma by K. Berg in 1963<< Ref. 3006>>, are similar to low-density lipoproteins (LDL), containing apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) and a similar lipid content. In addition, Lp(a) contains the glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a) (apo (a)), which is disulfide-linked to apo B-100<< Ref. 3001>>.
Structure
Lp(a) is made up of a low-density lipoprotein-like structure in which apolipoprotein B-100, the protein moiety of authentic low-density lipoprotein, is covalently linked to a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein (a) ,which is the specific marker of Lp (a) that exhibits a striking similarity to plasminogen. The dominant structural motif of apo (a) is the kringle, a three-disulfide, triple-loop structure named for its resemblance to a Danish pretzel. Kringle 4 is repeated 13 to 37 times, whereas there is only one kringle 5. It is now established that the size of each apo (a) isoform is under strict genetic control and determined by the number of kringles that it contains. Usually, there is 1 mol of apo (a) and 1 mol of apo B-100 in each Lp(a) particle. However, species of Lp (a) having one copy of apo B-100 and 2mol of apo (a) have been reported.
Composition
Lp(a) is heterogeneous, both within and among individuals, and this heterogeneity may at least partly be accounted for by differences in the size of apo (a). The Mr of apo (a) varies among individuals, and no fewer than six isoforms with Mr ranging from 450,000 to 1,000,000 Da have been observed.<< Ref. 3007>>
Synthesis
The primary site of synthesis of Lp (a) appears to be the hepatocyte, although apo (a) mRNA has also been identified in testes and brain.<< Ref. 3008>> Synthesis of apo (a) in liver is hardly surprising given that the hepatocyte is also the primary site of the synthesis of apo B-100.
Metabolism
Lp(a) contains an LDL component having an apo B-100 moiety, early studies addressed the access of Lp (a) to LDL receptor pathways. Several groups have demonstrated that Lp (a) binds to the classic LDL receptor in cultured fibroblasts, although with a lower affinity than LDL itself; the estimated apparent Kd for Lp (a) is 9.5 nM compared with 7.8 nM for LDL, according to Krempler and colleagues.
The cDNA for apo (a) predicted a protein consisting of tandemly repeated plasminogen kringle-four-like domains followed by a single plasminogen kringle-five-like and protease domain. It is postulated that the differences in the sizes of the isoforms is a result of allelic variation in the number of kringle-four repeats. The apo (a) gene has been localized to the long arm of chromosome 6 (q26-27) where it is closely linked to the plasminogen gene.<< Ref. 3012>> << Ref.3001 >> AUTHOR: Scanu, A. M. TITLE: Lipoprotein(a). A genetic risk factor for premature coronary heart disease PubMed ID:1534588 JOURNAL: Jama. VOLUME: 267 PAGE: 3326-3329(1992)
<< Ref.3002 >> AUTHOR: Sattler, W., Kostner, G. M., Waeg, G., and Esterbauer, H. TITLE: Oxidation of lipoprotein Lp(a). A comparison with low-density lipoproteins PubMed ID:1825020 JOURNAL: Biochim Biophys Acta. VOLUME: 1081 PAGE: 65-74(1991)
<< Ref.3003 >> AUTHOR: Gaubatz, J. W., Heideman, C., Gotto, A. M., Jr., Morrisett, J. D., and Dahlen, G. H. TITLE: Human plasma lipoprotein [a]. Structural properties PubMed ID:6220008 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 258 PAGE: 4582-4589(1983)
<< Ref.3004 >> AUTHOR: AD, M. Bewu, and Durrington, P. N. TITLE: Lipoprotein (a): structure, properties and possible involvement in thrombogenesis and atherogenesis PubMed ID:2149271 JOURNAL: Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 85 PAGE: 1-14(1990)
<< Ref.3005 >> AUTHOR: Armstrong, V. W., Walli, A. K., and Seidel, D. TITLE: Isolation, characterization, and uptake in human fibroblasts of an apo(a)-free lipoprotein obtained on reduction of lipoprotein(a) PubMed ID:2999280 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 26 PAGE: 1314-1323(1985)
<< Ref.3006 >> AUTHOR: Berg, K. TITLE: A New Serum Type System In Man--The Lp System PubMed ID:14064818 JOURNAL: Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. VOLUME: 59 PAGE: 369-382(1963)
<< Ref.3007 >> AUTHOR: McLean, J. W., Tomlinson, J. E., Kuang, W. J., Eaton, D. L., Chen, E. Y., Fless, G. M., Scanu, A. M., and Lawn, R. M. TITLE: cDNA sequence of human apolipoprotein(a) is homologous to plasminogen PubMed ID:3670400 JOURNAL: Nature. VOLUME: 330 PAGE: 132-137(1987)
<< Ref.3008 >> AUTHOR: Tomlinson, J. E., McLean, J. W., and Lawn, R. M. TITLE: Rhesus monkey apolipoprotein(a). Sequence, evolution, and sites of synthesis PubMed ID:2925643 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 264 PAGE: 5957-5965(1989)
<< Ref.3009 >> AUTHOR: Dahlen, G. H., Guyton, J. R., Attar, M., Farmer, J. A., Kautz, J. A., and Gotto, A. M., Jr. TITLE: Association of levels of lipoprotein Lp(a), plasma lipids, and other lipoproteins with coronary artery disease documented by angiography PubMed ID:2944670 JOURNAL: Circulation. VOLUME: 74 PAGE: 758-765(1986)
<< Ref.3010 >> AUTHOR: Armstrong, V. W., Cremer, P., Eberle, E., Manke, A., Schulze, F., Wieland, H., Kreuzer, H., and Seidel, D. TITLE: The association between serum Lp(a) concentrations and angiographically assessed coronary atherosclerosis. Dependence on serum LDL levels PubMed ID:2948513 JOURNAL: Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 249-257(1986)
<< Ref.3011 >> AUTHOR: Frick, M. H., Dahlen, G., Berg, K., Valle, M., and Hekali, P. TITLE: Serum lipids in angiographically assessed coronary atherosclerosis PubMed ID:202436 JOURNAL: Chest. VOLUME: 73 PAGE: 62-65(1978)
<< Ref.3012 >> AUTHOR: Drayna, D. T., Hegele, R. A., Hass, P. E., Emi, M., Wu, L. L., Eaton, D. L., Lawn, R. M., Williams, R. R., White, R. L., and Lalouel, J. M. TITLE: Genetic linkage between lipoprotein(a) phenotype and a DNA polymorphism in the plasminogen gene PubMed ID:2976021 JOURNAL: Genomics. VOLUME: 3 PAGE: 230-236(1988)
7
apolipoprotein A-I TLP4101LipoproteinKazuo Kondoapo A-I 0.000Function
(1) Apo AI alters a-helix and binds to phospholipids and cholesterol esters to form globules.
(2) Apo AI activates LCAT.
(3) Apo AI acts as an acceptor during transport of free cholesterol between HDL and tissue.<< Ref. 4104/4105/4106/4107/4108/4109/4110>>
Molecular weight:28,016
Isoelectric point:5.4-5.05<< Ref. 4101>>
The number of amino acid residues :243 Amino acid compositions << Ref. 4113>> Amino acid sequences:In 1975, the primary structure of apo AI was clarified by Baker et al., and the full-length cDNA was cloned by Brewer et al. in 1984. Structure: The secondary structure of apo AI consists of 11 a-helices (55%),2 b-turns (8%), and 2 b-turns (37%). Properties:Because Apo AI forms a monomer as well as polymers, such as dimers, tetramers, and octamers in the solution, it is self-associated depending on the protein concentration.<< Ref. 4101/4102>> Method of purification
HDL was initially purified and separated by ultracentrifugation, and the sample containing apo AI was dialyzed against 0.16 M NaCl-1 mM EDTA solution (pH 8.0), then lyophilized. Subsequently, fat was removed from the sample by ether/ethanol (2/3), and the sample was dissolved in 0.01 M Tris-6 M urea solution (pH 8.6) for purification by gel filtration chromatography.
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo AI binds to lipids and exists as a component of chylomicron and HDL.<< Ref. 4103>>
Sites of synthesis:The liver and the small intestine.
The rate of synthesis:11mg/kg/day
Metabolism
Apo AI is synthesized in the liver and samll intestine. Apo AI is initially contained in chylomicron in blood, then produces nascent HDL in combination with phospholipids. Subsequently, nascent HDL is altered to mature HDL by LCAT and taken up in the liver and other organs.
Half life:4.3 days<< Ref. 4111>>
Genetic information
Gene locus:11;p11-q1
Genearrangement(DNA)<< Ref. 4114>><< Ref. 4115>>
Information of genetic diseases (Tangier disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and apo AI deficiency).
Phenotypes:Twenty-two phenotypes represented by apo AI milano has been discovered.<< Ref. 4112>>
Standard range:122 - 161 mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo A-I.:Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, LCAT deficiency, and abetalipoproteinemia.
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry,SRIDetc.
<< Ref.4101 >> AUTHOR: Scanu,A.M.(1979) Plasma lipoproteins= an introduction=in The Biochemistry of Atherosclrosis (Scanu,A.M.,Wissler,R.W., and Getz,G.S., eds),Marcel Dekker, New York TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.4102 >> AUTHOR: Swaney, J. B., and O'Brien, K. J. TITLE: Cross-linking studies on the state of association of apo A-I and apo A-II from human HDL PubMed ID:183777 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 71 PAGE: 636-643(1976)
<< Ref.4103 >> AUTHOR: Blue, M. L., Ostapchuk, P., Gordon, J. S., and Williams, D. L. TITLE: Synthesis of apolipoprotein AI by peripheral tissues of the rooster. A possible mechanism of cellular cholesterol efflux PubMed ID:6809767 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 257 PAGE: 11151-11159(1982)
<< Ref.4104 >> AUTHOR: Lux, S. E., Hirz, R., Shrager, R. I., and Gotto, A. M. TITLE: The influence of lipid on the conformation of human plasma high density apolipoproteins PubMed ID:4336379 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 247 PAGE: 2598-2606(1972)
<< Ref.4105 >> AUTHOR: Fielding, C. J., Shore, V. G., and Fielding, P. E. TITLE: A protein cofactor of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase PubMed ID:4335615 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 1493-1498(1972)
<< Ref.4106 >> AUTHOR: Soutar, A. K., Garner, C. W., Baker, H. N., Sparrow, J. T., Jackson, R. L., Gotto, A. M., and Smith, L. C. TITLE: Effect of the human plasma apolipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine acyl donor on the activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase PubMed ID:167813 JOURNAL: Biochemistry. VOLUME: 14 PAGE: 3057-3064(1975)
<< Ref.4107 >> AUTHOR: Stein, O., and Stein, Y. TITLE: The removal of cholesterol from Landschutz ascites cells by high-density apolipoprotein PubMed ID:4128802 JOURNAL: Biochim Biophys Acta. VOLUME: 326 PAGE: 232-244(1973)
<< Ref.4108 >> AUTHOR: Jackson, R. L., and Gotto, A. M., Jr. TITLE: Phospholipids in biology and medicine (first of two parts) PubMed ID:4357163 JOURNAL: N Engl J Med. VOLUME: 290 PAGE: 24-29(1974)
<< Ref.4109 >> AUTHOR: Jackson, R. L., Gotto, A. M., Stein, O., and Stein, Y. TITLE: A comparative study on the removal of cellular lipids from Landschutz ascites cells by human plasma apolipoproteins PubMed ID:170257 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 250 PAGE: 7204-7209(1975)
<< Ref.4110 >> AUTHOR: Stein, Y., Glangeaud, M. C., Fainaru, M., and Stein, O. TITLE: The removal of cholesterol from aortic smooth muscle cells in culture and Landschutz ascites cells by fractions of human high-density apolipoprotein PubMed ID:164235 JOURNAL: Biochim Biophys Acta. VOLUME: 380 PAGE: 106-118(1975)
<< Ref.4111 >> AUTHOR: Tall, A. R., and Small, D. M. TITLE: Plasma high-density lipoproteins PubMed ID:213711 JOURNAL: N Engl J Med. VOLUME: 299 PAGE: 1232-1236(1978)
<< Ref.4112 >> AUTHOR: Weisgraber, K. H., Rall, S. C., Jr., Bersot, T. P., Mahley, R. W., Franceschini, G., and Sirtori, C. R. TITLE: Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. Detection of normal A-I in affected subjects and evidence for a cysteine for arginine substitution in the variant A-I PubMed ID:6401735 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 258 PAGE: 2508-2513(1983)
<< Ref.4113 >> AUTHOR: Brewer,H.B.Jr., Ronan,R., Meng, M., and Bishop,C. (1986) Isolation and Characterization of Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and A-IV, in Methods in ENZYMOLOGY Vol.128 (Segrest J.P., and Albers J.J., eds), pp223-246, Academic Press, Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.4114 >> AUTHOR: Law, S. W., Gray, G., and Brewer, H. B., Jr. TITLE: cDNA cloning of human apoA-I: amino acid sequence of preproapoA-I PubMed ID:6404278 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 112 PAGE: 257-264(1983)
<< Ref.4115 >> AUTHOR: Sharpe, C. R., Sidoli, A., Shelley, C. S., Lucero, M. A., Shoulders, C. C., and Baralle, F. E. TITLE: Human apolipoproteins AI, AII, CII and CIII. cDNA sequences and mRNA abundance PubMed ID:6328445 JOURNAL: Nucleic Acids Res. VOLUME: 12 PAGE: 3917-3932(1984)
8
apolipoprotein A-II TLP4201LipoproteinKazuo Kondoapo A-II 0.000Function
(1) Apo AII strongly binds to HDL, and induces apo AI release.
(2) Apo AII inhibits LCAT activity (Apo AII releases apo AI from the complex between apo AI and lipids, thus decreasing the activity of LCAT).
(3) Apo AII activates hepatic lipase.<< Ref. 4205/4206>>
Molecular weight:8,707times2molecules
Isoelectric point:5<< Ref. 4201>>
The number of amino acid residues :77times2molecules Amino acid compositions << Ref. 4113>> Amino acid sequences:Further investigations are required. Structure:Apo AII consists of 2 polypeptide molecules, and the 6th cysteine molecules are bound by the disulfide bond. The secondary structure of apo AII consists of a-helix (35%), b-structure (13%), and irregular structure (52%). << Ref. 4202/4203>> Method of purification
HDL was initially purified and separated by ultracentrifugation, and the sample containing apo AII was dialyzed against 0.16 M NaCl-1 mM EDTA solution (pH 8.0), then lyophilized. Subsequently, fat was removed from the sample using ether/ethanol (2/3), and dissolved in 0.01 M Tris-6 M urea (pH 8.6) for purification by gel filtration chromatography.
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo AII binds to lipids, and exists as a component of chylomicron and HDL.<< Ref. 4204>>
Sites of synthesis:The liver and the small intestine.
The rate of synthesis:2.8mg/kg/day
Metabolism
After transport from chylomicron to HDL, apo AII is taken up in the liver.
Half life:5.0 days<< Ref. 4207>>
Genetic information
Gene locus:1;p21-qter
Genearrangement(DNA)<< Ref. 4209>><< Ref. 4115>>
Information of genetic diseases (Complete apo AII deficiency was reported by Takata et al. in 1988).<< Ref. 4208>>
Standard range:25.1-34.5 mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo A-II.
LCAT deficiency, and abetalipoproteinemia.
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry SRID,RIA etc.
<< Ref.4113 >> AUTHOR: Brewer,H.B.Jr., Ronan,R., Meng, M., and Bishop,C. (1986) Isolation and Characterization of Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and A-IV, in Methods in ENZYMOLOGY Vol.128 (Segrest J.P., and Albers J.J., eds), pp223-246, Academic Press, Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.4115 >> AUTHOR: Sharpe, C. R., Sidoli, A., Shelley, C. S., Lucero, M. A., Shoulders, C. C., and Baralle, F. E. TITLE: Human apolipoproteins AI, AII, CII and CIII. cDNA sequences and mRNA abundance PubMed ID:6328445 JOURNAL: Nucleic Acids Res. VOLUME: 12 PAGE: 3917-3932(1984)
<< Ref.4201 >> AUTHOR: Brewer, H. B., Jr., Lux, S. E., Ronan, R., and John, K. M. TITLE: Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein isolated from the high-density lipoprotein complex PubMed ID:4338591 JOURNAL: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. VOLUME: 69 PAGE: 1304-1308(1972)
<< Ref.4202 >> AUTHOR: Schonfeld, G., Chen, J., McDonnell, W. F., and Jeng, I. TITLE: Apolipoprotein A-II content of human plasma high density lipoproteins measured by radioimmunoassay PubMed ID:198505 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 18 PAGE: 645-655(1977)
<< Ref.4203 >> AUTHOR: Scanu, A., Toth, J., Edelstein, C., Koga, S., and Stiller, E. TITLE: Fractionation of human serum high density lipoprotein in urea solutions. Evidence for polypeptide heterogeneity PubMed ID:4980192 JOURNAL: Biochemistry. VOLUME: 8 PAGE: 3309-3316(1969)
<< Ref.4204 >> AUTHOR: Schaefer,E.J., Jenkins, L.L., and Brewer, H.B. Jr. TITLE: Human chylomicron apolipoprotein metabolism. PubMed ID:414755 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. VOLUME: 80 PAGE: 405 -412 (1978)
<< Ref.4205 >> AUTHOR: Mao, S. J., Jackson, R. L., Gotto, A. M., Jr., and Sparrow, J. T. TITLE: Mechanism of lipid-protein interaction in the plasma lipoproteins: identification of a lipid-binding site in apolipoprotein A-II PubMed ID:6784756 JOURNAL: Biochemistry. VOLUME: 20 PAGE: 1676-1680(1981)
<< Ref.4206 >> AUTHOR: Jahn, C. E., Osborne, J. C., Jr., Schaefer, E. J., and Brewer, H. B., Jr. TITLE: Activation of the enzymic activity of hepatic lipase by apolipoprotein A-II. Characterization of a major component of high density lipoprotein as the activating plasma component in vitro PubMed ID:6403350 JOURNAL: Eur J Biochem. VOLUME: 131 PAGE: 25-29(1983)
<< Ref.4207 >> AUTHOR: Schaefer, E.J., Jenkins, L.L., and Brewer,H.B.Jr. TITLE: Human chylomicron apolipoprotein metabolism. PubMed ID:414755 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys. Res.Commun. VOLUME: 80 PAGE: 405 -412 (1978)
<< Ref.4208 >> AUTHOR: Deeb, S. S., Takata, K., Peng, R. L., Kajiyama, G., and Albers, J. J. TITLE: A splice-junction mutation responsible for familial apolipoprotein A-II deficiency PubMed ID:2107739 JOURNAL: Am J Hum Genet. VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 822-827(1990)
<< Ref.4209 >> AUTHOR: Lackner, K. J., Law, S. W., and Brewer, H. B., Jr. TITLE: Human apolipoprotein A-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preproapo A-II PubMed ID:6090207 JOURNAL: FEBS Lett. VOLUME: 175 PAGE: 159-164(1984)
9
apolipoprotein B TLP4301LipoproteinKazuo Kondoapo B 0.000Function
(1) Apo B is a structural element of chylomicron, VLDL, IDL, and LDL.(2) Apo B binds to lipids to synthesize chylomicron or VLDL, which is secreted into lymphatic and blood vessels. Apo B accelerates absorption of dietary lipids, especially triglycerides. (3)Apo B binds to cell surface receptors to supply lipids into the cell.<< Ref. 4304/4305/4306>>
Molecular weight: 549,000<< Ref. 4301>> The number of amino acid residues : Amino acid compositions << Ref. 4309/4310/4311>> Amino acid sequences: The primary structure of apo B is repetitive. Structure: The secondary structure consists of a-helices (25%), b-structures (37%), and disordered structures (37%). However, the secondary structure of apo B varies depending on binding lipids and temperatures. Properties:Apo B is insoluble in water.<< Ref. 4302/4303>> Method of purification
A fraction containing apo B (1.030 - 1.050 g/ml) was purified by ultracentrifugation, which was defatted by ether/ethanol.
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo B binds to lipids, and is a structural element of LDL and VLDL.
Sites of synthesis: liver
The rate of synthesis:14.4mg/kg/day
Metabolism
Apo B is synthesized in the liver and secreted as VLDL. When LPL acts on VLDL, VLDL is converted to LDL, which is incorporated into LDL receptors. In addition, a part of apo B is denatured, and is processed by incorporation into the scavenger receptor pathway.
Half life:2.2days<< Ref. 4307>>
Genetic information
Gene locus:There are 4 loci for the alpha globulin (Ag) gene on the short arm of chromosome 2.
Gene arrangement (DNA)<< Ref. 4309/4310/4311>>
:Information of genetic diseases: Ten allotypes (Aga1, c, d, g, h, l, t, x, y, and z) have been discovered.Information of genetic diseases (abetalipoproteinemia, hypobetalipoproteinemia).
Phenotypes:Further investigations are required.<< Ref. 4308>>
Standard range:69-105mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo B.
Hyperlipoproteinemia (type IIa, IIb), familial LCAT deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, and hypobetalipoproteinemia.
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry ,SRIDetc.
<< Ref.4301 >> AUTHOR: Gotto, A. M., Jr., Levy, R. I., Lux, S. E., Birnbaumer, M. E., and Fredrickson, D. S. TITLE: A comparaive study of the effects of chemical modification on the immunochemical and optical properties of human plasma low-density lipoprotein(s) and apoproteins PubMed ID:4353238 JOURNAL: Biochem J. VOLUME: 133 PAGE: 369-382(1973)
<< Ref.4302 >> AUTHOR: Thompson, G. R., Birnbaumer, M. E., Levy, R. I., and Gotto, A. M., Jr. TITLE: Solid phase radioimmunoassay of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in normal human plasma PubMed ID:182180 JOURNAL: Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 24 PAGE: 107-118(1976)
<< Ref.4303 >> AUTHOR: Kane, J. P., Hardman, D. A., and Paulus, H. E. TITLE: Heterogeneity of apolipoprotein B: isolation of a new species from human chylomicrons PubMed ID:6930644 JOURNAL: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. VOLUME: 77 PAGE: 2465-2469(1980)
<< Ref.4304 >> AUTHOR: Alexander, C. A., Hamilton, R. L., and Havel, R. J. TITLE: Subcellular localization of B apoprotein of plasma lipoproteins in rat liver PubMed ID:177430 JOURNAL: J Cell Biol. VOLUME: 69 PAGE: 241-263(1976)
<< Ref.4305 >> AUTHOR: Goldstein, J. L., and Brown, M. S. TITLE: Binding and degradation of low density lipoproteins by cultured human fibroblasts. Comparison of cells from a normal subject and from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia PubMed ID:4368448 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 249 PAGE: 5153-5162(1974)
<< Ref.4306 >> AUTHOR: Goldstein, J. L., and Brown, M. S. TITLE: The low-density lipoprotein pathway and its relation to atherosclerosis PubMed ID:197883 JOURNAL: Annu Rev Biochem. VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 897-930(1977)
<< Ref.4307 >> AUTHOR: Marsh,J.B. TITLE: Apoproteins of the lipoproteins in a nonrecirculating perfusate of rat liver. PubMed ID:176290 JOURNAL: J.Lipid Res. VOLUME: 17 PAGE: 85 -89 (1976)
<< Ref.4308 >> AUTHOR: Malloy, M. J., Kane, J. P., Hardman, D. A., Hamilton, R. L., and Dalal, K. B. TITLE: Normotriglyceridemic abetalipoproteinemia. absence of the B-100 apolipoprotein PubMed ID:7229035 JOURNAL: J Clin Invest. VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 1441-1450(1981)
<< Ref.4309 >> AUTHOR: Knott, T. J., Wallis, S. C., Powell, L. M., Pease, R. J., Lusis, A. J., Blackhart, B., McCarthy, B. J., Mahley, R. W., Levy-Wilson, B., and Scott, J. TITLE: Complete cDNA and derived protein sequence of human apolipoprotein B-100 PubMed ID:3763409 JOURNAL: Nucleic Acids Res. VOLUME: 14 PAGE: 7501-7503(1986)
<< Ref.4310 >> AUTHOR: Chen, S. H., Yang, C. Y., Chen, P. F., Setzer, D., Tanimura, M., Li, W. H., Gotto, A. M., Jr., and Chan, L. TITLE: The complete cDNA and amino acid sequence of human apolipoprotein B-100 PubMed ID:3759943 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 261 PAGE: 12918-12921(1986)
<< Ref.4311 >> AUTHOR: Law, S. W., Grant, S. M., Higuchi, K., Hospattankar, A., Lackner, K., Lee, N., and Brewer, H. B., Jr. TITLE: Human liver apolipoprotein B-100 cDNA: complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequence PubMed ID:3464946 JOURNAL: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. VOLUME: 83 PAGE: 8142-8146(1986)
10
apolipoprotein C-II TLP4401LipoproteinKazuo Kondoapo C-II 0.000Function
Apo CII binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hydrolizes triglycerides.<< Ref. 4403>>
Molecular weight:8,837
Isoelectric point:4.9<< Ref. 4401>>
The number of amino acid residues :79 Amino acid compositions << Ref. 4408>> Amino acid sequences:Further investigations are required. Structure:The primary structure of apo C-II is comprised of single-stranded polypeptides. Amphiphilic helix structures are observed in segments 13-22, 28-38, and 43-51. Hydrophobic peptides in segments 66-78, 60-78, 55-78, and 50-78 do not bind to phospholipids, while the segment 43-49 is highly hydrophobic and has a helix structure, thus being involved in lipid binding. << Ref. 4402>> Method of purification
After centrifugation, VLDL was separated from plasma by ultracentrifugation, which was defatted after dialysis.
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo C-II binds to lipids, and is a structural element of VLDL and HDL
Sites of synthesis:The liver and the small intestine.
The rate of synthesis:1.6mg/kg/day
Metabolism
Apo C-II is synthesized in the liver and small intestine, and present in VLDL. After activating LPL, apo C-II is transferred from VLDL to HDL.
Half life:1.0 days<< Ref. 4404/4405>>
Genetic information
Gene locus:19;pter-q13
Genearrangement(DNA)<< Ref. 4115>>
Information of genetic diseases:Information on genetic diseases (Apo C-II deficiency).
Phenotypes:Further investigations are required.<< Ref. 4406>>
Standard range:1.6- 4.2mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo C-II.:Apo C-II deficiency
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry ,SRIDetc.
<< Ref.4115 >> AUTHOR: Sharpe, C. R., Sidoli, A., Shelley, C. S., Lucero, M. A., Shoulders, C. C., and Baralle, F. E. TITLE: Human apolipoproteins AI, AII, CII and CIII. cDNA sequences and mRNA abundance PubMed ID:6328445 JOURNAL: Nucleic Acids Res. VOLUME: 12 PAGE: 3917-3932(1984)
<< Ref.4401 >> AUTHOR: Sparrow, J. T., and Gotto, A. M., Jr. TITLE: Phospholipid binding studies with synthetic apolipoprotein fragments PubMed ID:6772077 JOURNAL: Ann N Y Acad Sci. VOLUME: 348 PAGE: 187-211(1980)
<< Ref.4402 >> AUTHOR: Brown, W. V., Levy, R. I., and Fredrickson, D. S. TITLE: Studies of the proteins in human plasma very low density lipoproteins PubMed ID:4981584 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 244 PAGE: 5687-5694(1969)
<< Ref.4403 >> AUTHOR: LaRosa, J. C., Levy, R. I., Herbert, P., Lux, S. E., and Fredrickson, D. S. TITLE: A specific apoprotein activator for lipoprotein lipase PubMed ID:5459123 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 41 PAGE: 57-62(1970)
<< Ref.4404 >> AUTHOR: Eisenberg, S., and Rachmilewitz, D. TITLE: Interaction of rat plasma very low density lipoprotein with lipoprotein lipase-rich (postheparin) plasma PubMed ID:170350 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 16 PAGE: 341-351(1975)
<< Ref.4405 >> AUTHOR: Wu, A. L., and Windmueller, H. G. TITLE: Identification of circulating apolipoproteins synthesized by rat small intestine in vivo PubMed ID:632283 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 253 PAGE: 2525-2528(1978)
<< Ref.4406 >> AUTHOR: Yamamura, T., Sudo, H., Ishikawa, K., and Yamamoto, A. TITLE: Familial type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by apolipoprotein C-II deficiency PubMed ID:227429 JOURNAL: Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 34 PAGE: 53-65(1979)
<< Ref.4408 >> AUTHOR: Jackson,R.L., and Holdsworth,G.(1986) Isolation and Characterization of Apolipoproteins C-I, C-II, C-III, in Methods in ENZYMOLOGY Vol.128 (Segrest J.P., and Albers J.J., eds), pp223-246, Academic Press, Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
11
apolipoprotein C-III TLP4501LipoproteinKazuo Kondoapo C-III 0.000Function
(1) Apo C -III inhibits activation of LPL by apo C II.(2) Apo C -III inhibits incorporation of apo E-containing lipoproteins (chylomicron remnant) into hepatocytes.22. (3)Apo C -III enhances sphingomyelinase activity, thus being involved in lipid degeneration.<< Ref. 4504/4505>>
Molecular weight:8,751
Isoelectric point:4.7~5.0<< Ref. 4501/4502>>
The number of amino acid residues :79 Amino acid compositions << Ref. 4408>> Amino acid sequences::Further investigations are required. Structure:The primary structure of apo C -III is comprised of single-stranded polypeptides. Threonine74 binds to one molecule each of galactose, mannose and galactosamine, in addition to 0 or several molecules of sialic acid. The secondary structure consists of a-helices (17.7%), b-structures (17.7%), b-turns (30.4%), and random structures (34.2%). The secondary structure of apo C III forms amphiphilic helices, and polar amino acids distributed on the opposite side of the structure are involved in lipid binding. << Ref. 4503>> Method of purification
After centrifugation, VLDL was separated from plasma by ultracentrifugation, which was defatted after dialysis.
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo C-III binds to lipids, and is a structural element of VLDL and HDL.
Sites of synthesis:The liver and the small intestine.
The rate of synthesis:5.2mg/kg/day
Metabolism
Apo C- III synthesized in the liver and small intestine, and present in VLDL, then transferred from VLDL to HDL.
Half life:1.0 days<< Ref. 4506/4507>>
Genetic information
Gene locus:11,
Gene arrangement (DNA)<< Ref. 4115>>
Information of genetic diseases:Information on genetic diseases (Apo C-IIIdeficiency).
Phenotypes:Further investigations are required.<< Ref. 4508>>
Standard range:5.5- 9.5 mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo C-III.
Apo C III deficiency
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry,SRID etc.
<< Ref.4115 >> AUTHOR: Sharpe, C. R., Sidoli, A., Shelley, C. S., Lucero, M. A., Shoulders, C. C., and Baralle, F. E. TITLE: Human apolipoproteins AI, AII, CII and CIII. cDNA sequences and mRNA abundance PubMed ID:6328445 JOURNAL: Nucleic Acids Res. VOLUME: 12 PAGE: 3917-3932(1984)
<< Ref.4408 >> AUTHOR: Jackson,R.L., and Holdsworth,G.(1986) Isolation and Characterization of Apolipoproteins C-I, C-II, C-III, in Methods in ENZYMOLOGY Vol.128 (Segrest J.P., and Albers J.J., eds), pp223-246, Academic Press, Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.4501 >> AUTHOR: Brewer, H.B. Jr., Shulman, R., Herbert,P., Ronan, R., and Wehrly ,K. TITLE: The complete amino acid sequence of alanine apolipoprotein (apoC-3), and apolipoprotein from human plasma very low density lipoproteins. PubMed ID:4846755 JOURNAL: J.Biol.Chem. VOLUME: 249 PAGE: 4975 -4984 (1974)
<< Ref.4502 >> AUTHOR: Segrest, J. P., Jackson, R. L., Morrisett, J. D., and Gotto, A. M., Jr. TITLE: A molecular theory of lipid-protein interactions in the plasma lipoproteins PubMed ID:4368333 JOURNAL: FEBS Lett. VOLUME: 38 PAGE: 247-258(1974)
<< Ref.4503 >> AUTHOR: Kashyap, M. L., Srivastava, L. S., Hynd, B. A., Gartside, P. S., and Perisutti, G. TITLE: Quantitation of human apolipoprotein C-III and its subspecie by radioimmunoassay and analytical isoelectric focusing: abnormal plasma triglyceride-rich lipoprotein apolipoprotein C-III subspecie concentrations in hypertriglyceridemia PubMed ID:7288286 JOURNAL: J Lipid Res. VOLUME: 22 PAGE: 800-810(1981)
<< Ref.4504 >> AUTHOR: Havel, R. J., Shore, V. G., Shore, B., and Bier, D. M. TITLE: Role of specific glycopeptides of human serum lipoproteins in the activation of lipoprotein lipase PubMed ID:5507034 JOURNAL: Circ Res. VOLUME: 27 PAGE: 595-600(1970)
<< Ref.4505 >> AUTHOR: Brown, W. V., and Baginsky, M. L. TITLE: Inhibition of lipoprotein lipase by an apoprotein of human very low density lipoprotein PubMed ID:5057882 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 375-382(1972)
<< Ref.4506 >> AUTHOR: Karathanasis, S. K., McPherson, J., Zannis, V. I., and Breslow, J. L. TITLE: Linkage of human apolipoproteins A-I and C-III genes PubMed ID:6308458 JOURNAL: Nature. VOLUME: 304 PAGE: 371-373(1983)
<< Ref.4507 >> AUTHOR: Schaefer,E.J., Jenkins, L.L., and Brewer,H.B. Jr. TITLE: Human chylomicron apolipoprotein metabolism. PubMed ID:414755 JOURNAL: Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. VOLUME: 80 PAGE: 405 -412 (1978)
<< Ref.4508 >> AUTHOR: Norum, R. A., Lakier, J. B., Goldstein, S., Angel, A., Goldberg, R. B., Block, W. D., Noffze, D. K., Dolphin, P. J., Edelglass, J., Bogorad, D. D., et al. TITLE: Familial deficiency of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III and precocious coronary-artery disease PubMed ID:7078608 JOURNAL: N Engl J Med. VOLUME: 306 PAGE: 1513-1519(1982)
12
apolipoprotein E TLP4601LipoproteinKazuo Kondoapo E 0.000Function
(1) Apo E transits among lipoproteins, thus being involved in regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. (2) Apo E is involved in lipoprotein uptake via cell receptors as well as in the catabolism of lipids and proteins.<< Ref. 4604>>
Molecular weight:3,3000-3,9000
Isoelectric point:5,7-6.0<< Ref. 4601>>
The number of amino acid residues :299 Amino acid compositions << Ref. 4611>> Amino acid sequences:Further investigations are required. Structure:Arginine accounts for a relatively large proportion of structural amino acids (10 - 12 mol%). When the secondary structure of apo E is examined, 62% of structural amino acids form 11 a-helix segment, 11% of structural amino acids form 8 b-turns, 9% of structural amino acids form 3 short sheets, and the remaining amino acids form random coils which are mainly located at the region between the 164th and 202nd amino acid residues. Properties:The size and electric charge of apo E vary.<< Ref. 4602/4603>> Method of purification
Lipoproteins are initially separated by ultracentrifugation. After defatting, apoproteins are separated and purified by column chromatography.
Existing condition and distribution of lipoprotein
In blood, apo E is bound to lipids, and accounts for 15% of apoproteins in VLDL. A small amount of apo E is also contained in chylomicron, chylomicron remnant, HDL, and LDL.
Sites of synthesis:The liver
The rate of synthesis:5.2mg/kg/day
Metabolism
Apo E is synthesized in the liver, and contained in VLDL and nascent HDL. When lipoprotein lipase acts on VLDL, a part of apo E in VLDL is released and transferred to HDL. When LCAT acts on HDL, apo E in HDL is transferred to VLDL. The respective lipoproteins are taken up after being bound to LDL receptors, chylomicron remnant receptors, and apo E receptors.
Half life:0.4days<< Ref. 4605/4606/4607>>
Genetic information
Gene locus:19;
Gene arrangement (DNA)<< Ref. 4612>>
Information of gene aberration:Apo E3 is a wild type of apo E. In apo E2 and E4, mutual replacement occurs between arginine and cysteine at the 112th and 158th amino acid residues of apo E3, respectively.
Information of genetic diseases :apo E2 homozygote
Phenotypes:E1,E2,E3,E4,E5,E7<< Ref. 4608/4609/4610>>
Standard range:2.8- 4.6mg/dl (in human sera)
Diseases and drugs that induce abnormal levels of apo E.
Congenital apo E abnormalities (dyslipoproteinemia caused by apo E2 homozygote, apo E deficiency, b-lipoprotein abnormalities demonstrating E3/3) and risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (apo E4).
Analytical methods:TIA,ELISA,Nephelometry,SRID etc.
<< Ref.4601 >> AUTHOR: Weisgraber, K. H., Troxler, R. F., Rall, S. C., and Mahley, R. W. TITLE: Comparison of the human, canine and swine E apoproteins PubMed ID:7417263 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 95 PAGE: 374-380(1980)
<< Ref.4602 >> AUTHOR: Utermann, G. TITLE: Isolation and partial characterization of an arginine-rich apolipoprotein from human plasma very-low-density lipoproteins: apolipoprotein E PubMed ID:172422 JOURNAL: Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. VOLUME: 356 PAGE: 1113-1121(1975)
<< Ref.4603 >> AUTHOR: Utermann, G., Jaeschke, M., and Menzel, J. TITLE: Familial hyperlipoproteinemia type III: deficiency of a specific apolipoprotein (apo E-III) in the very-low-density lipoproteins PubMed ID:169165 JOURNAL: FEBS Lett. VOLUME: 56 PAGE: 352-355(1975)
<< Ref.4604 >> AUTHOR: Yamada, N., and Murase, T. TITLE: Modulation, by apolipoprotein E, of lipoprotein lipase activity PubMed ID:7396930 JOURNAL: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. VOLUME: 94 PAGE: 710-715(1980)
<< Ref.4605 >> AUTHOR: Blum, C. B., Aron, L., and Sciacca, R. TITLE: Radioimmunoassay studies of human apolipoprotein E PubMed ID:7440713 JOURNAL: J Clin Invest. VOLUME: 66 PAGE: 1240-1250(1980)
<< Ref.4606 >> AUTHOR: Marsh,J.B. TITLE: Apoproteins of the lipoproteins in a nonrecirculating perfusate of rat liver. PubMed ID:176290 JOURNAL: J.Lipid Res. VOLUME: 17 PAGE: 85 -89 (1976)
<< Ref.4607 >> AUTHOR: Hamilton, R. L., Williams, M. C., Fielding, C. J., and Havel, R. J. TITLE: Discoidal bilayer structure of nascent high density lipoproteins from perfused rat liver PubMed ID:182724 JOURNAL: J Clin Invest. VOLUME: 58 PAGE: 667-680(1976)
<< Ref.4608 >> AUTHOR: Havel, R. J., Kotite, L., Vigne, J. L., Kane, J. P., Tun, P., Phillips, N., and Chen, G. C. TITLE: Radioimmunoassay of human arginine-rich apolipoprotein, apoprotein E. Concentration in blood plasma and lipoproteins as affected by apoprotein E-3 deficiency PubMed ID:7440719 JOURNAL: J Clin Invest. VOLUME: 66 PAGE: 1351-1362(1980)
<< Ref.4609 >> AUTHOR: Ghiselli, G., Schaefer, E. J., Gascon, P., and Breser, H. B., Jr. TITLE: Type III hyperlipoproteinemia associated with apolipoprotein E deficiency PubMed ID:6795720 JOURNAL: Science. VOLUME: 214 PAGE: 1239-1241(1981)
<< Ref.4610 >> AUTHOR: Havel, R. J., Kotite, L., Kane, J. P., Tun, P., and Bersot, T. TITLE: Atypical familial dysbetalipoproteinemia associated with apolipoprotein phenotype E3/3 PubMed ID:6860421 JOURNAL: J Clin Invest. VOLUME: 72 PAGE: 379-387(1983)
<< Ref.4611 >> AUTHOR: Rall,S.C.Jr., Weisgraber,K.H., and Mahley,R.W.(1986) Isolation and Characterization of Apolipoprotein E, in Methods in ENZYMOLOGY Vol.128 (Segrest J.P., and Albers J.J., eds), pp223-246, Academic Press, Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.4612 >> AUTHOR: Breslow, J. L., McPherson, J., Nussbaum, A. L., Williams, H. W., Lofquist-Kahl, F., Karathanasis, S. K., and Zannis, V. I. TITLE: Identification and DNA sequence of a human apolipoprotein E cDNA clone PubMed ID:6897404 JOURNAL: J Biol Chem. VOLUME: 257 PAGE: 14639-14641(1982)
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