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Vitamin E

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IdImageCOMMON NAMENAMEDATA No Lipid classINFORMANTSYMBOLFORMULAMOL.WT(average)Download cdx file / Mol format file BIOOGICAL ACTIVITY PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SPECTRAL DATA CHROMATOGRAM DATA SOURCE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS METABOLISM GENETIC INFORMATION NOTE REFERENCES
MELTING POINTBOILING POINTDENSITYREFRACTIVE INDEXOPTICAL ROTATIONSOLUBILITY UV SPECTRAIR SPECTRANMR SPECTRAMASS SPECTRAOTHER SPECTRA
1RRR-a-tocopherol d-a-tocopherol 2R-(4'R,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0001Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaRRR-a-Toc/d-a-Toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data The true biological activity of vitamin E is determined by its ability to prevent or reverse specific vitamin E deficiency symptoms in animal in vivo (e.g., fatal resorption, muscular dystrophy, and encephlomalacia). Other tests, such as the erythrocyte hemolysis test and elevation of plasma tocopherol, have been used. RRR-a-tocopherol has been reported as 135-194% more than all-rac-a-tocopherol when evaluated by the rat resorption-gestation test , about 200% in terms of tissue retention of deuterated tocopherols in rat and human. The relationship between a-tocopherol and its derivatives was announced by USP. [Table 0008] [Table 0009] RRR-a-tocopherol has been assigned an activity of 1 mg a-TE per mg.[Table 0010] << Ref. 0034/0035/0036>> a546.1-25=+0.32deg in ethanol/d546.1-25=-3.0deg in benzene << Ref. 0001>> practically insol in water , freely sol in acetone, in ethanol, in ether, in methylene chloride and in fatty oils << Ref. 0002>> 292nm, E1%1cm=75.8(ethanol) 3310,2930,1620,1590,1460,1375,1270,1160,850cm-1 NMR spectrometry(60 MHz:CDCl3) [Spectrum 0001] << Ref. 0032>> Many analytical methods (colorimetric, fluorometric,TLC,GC,HPLC) have been reported for the determination of Tocopherols and tocotrienols. At the present time, HPLC methods are popular for the analysis of vitamin E. [Chromatogram 0005] << Ref. 0038>> 1.High linoleic acid type margarine 2.Sunflower oil 3.Cottonseed oil 4.Wheat germ 5.Roasted and salted sweet almond 6.Safflower oil 7.Rice bran oil 8.Roasted hazelnuts 9.Dried sunflower seeds 10.Anglerfish liver 11.Roasted Pine nuts 12.Virginia type dried peanuts 13.Spanish type dried peanuts 14.Salted roe 15.Uncooked and salted pollack roe 16.Palm oil 17.Cultured fish 18.Olive oil 19.Fried potato chips 20.Black karinto 21.Age-senbei 22.Raw roe << Ref. 0003/0004/0005/0006/0007/0033/0034>> The positively rotating formylchroman compound is condensed with the C15-phosphonium bromide to give (2S,4'R,8'R)-1',2'-dehydro-a-tocopherol acetate. After catalytic hydrogenation of the double bond and hydrolysis of the acetate grouping, (2R,4'R,8'R)-a-tocopherol is produced. [Table 0003] << Ref. 0008>> The apparent absorption of RRR-a-tocopherol in human is found to be similar whether administered as the free phenol, the acetyl ester, or the succinyl ester.<< Ref. 0044>> All-rac-a-tocopherol compared with RRR-a-tocopherol is preferentially metabolized to a-CEHC and excreted.<< Ref. 0043>> Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED), or familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. << Ref. 0042>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: Kasparek,S.(1980)Chemistry of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E, a comprehensive Treasure (Machlin, L.J. ,eds.), PP7-65, Marcel Dekker, INC., New York and Basel TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0002 >> AUTHOR: RRR-a-tocopherol,all-rac-a-tocopherol(1998), in European Pharmacopoeia-Supplement (Council of Europe eds.) , pp486-489 TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: Standard Tables of Fat-soluble Food Composition in Japan (1995) Fatty Acid,Cholesterol,Vitamin E( the Science and Technology Agency,eds),,pp13-103, Ishiyaku Press Ltd. (Japan),Tokyo TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: Sheppard, A.J., Pennington,A.T.(1993) Analysis and Distribution of Vitamin E in Vegetable Oils and Foods, in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer, L. , Fuchs, J. eds.),pp9-31,Marcel Dekker Inc , New York TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: Goh S. H. , Choo, Y. M. and Ong, S. H. TITLE: JOURNAL: J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 237 -240 (1985)
<< Ref.0006 >> AUTHOR: Leth, T., and Sondergaard, H. TITLE: Biological activity of vitamin E compounds and natural materials by the resorption-gestation test, and chemical determination of the vitamin E activity in foods and feeds PubMed ID:925769 JOURNAL: J Nutr. VOLUME: 107 PAGE: 2236-2243(1977)
<< Ref.0007 >> AUTHOR: Evans H.M., Emerson,O.H. and Emerson,G.A. TITLE: The Isolation from Wheat Germ Oil of an Alcohol, a-Tocopherol, having the Properties of Vitamin E. JOURNAL: J. Biol. Chem. VOLUME: 113 PAGE: 319 -332 (1936)
<< Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0032 >> AUTHOR: Katui,G.(1980) Chemistry of Vitamin E and Its Related Compounds, in Vitaminology [1], Fat-soluble Vitamins (Japanese Vitamin Society eds.), pp183-193, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin,Tokyo TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0033 >> AUTHOR: Ong,A.S.H.(1993) Natural Sources of Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp3-8,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0034 >> AUTHOR: Kijima,S. (1993) Chemistry of Vitamin E, in Vitamin E, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp3-11,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0035 >> AUTHOR: Burton, G. W., Traber, M. G., Acuff, R. V., Walters, D. N., Kayden, H., Hughes, L., and Ingold, K. U. TITLE: Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E PubMed ID:9537614 JOURNAL: Am J Clin Nutr. VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 669-684(1998)
<< Ref.0036 >> AUTHOR: Sheppard,A.J., Pennington,A.T. and Weihrauch,J.L.(1993) Analysis and Distribution of Vitamin E in Vegetable Oils and Foods in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp9-31,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0038 >> AUTHOR: Abe,K. and Matsumoto,A.(1993) Quantitative Determination of Tocopherols, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp13-19,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0042 >> AUTHOR: Cavalier, L., Ouahchi, K., Kayden, H. J., Di Donato, S., Reutenauer, L., Mandel, J. L., and Koenig, M. TITLE: Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency: heterogeneity of mutations and phenotypic variability in a large number of families PubMed ID:9463307 JOURNAL: Am J Hum Genet. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 301-310(1998)
<< Ref.0043 >> AUTHOR: Traber, M. G., Elsner, A., and Brigelius-Flohe, R. TITLE: Synthetic as compared with natural vitamin E is preferentially excreted as alpha-CEHC in human urine: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopheryl acetates PubMed ID:9804189 JOURNAL: FEBS Lett. VOLUME: 437 PAGE: 145-148(1998)
<< Ref.0044 >> AUTHOR: Traber, M. G., and Sies, H. TITLE: Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery PubMed ID:8839930 JOURNAL: Annu Rev Nutr. VOLUME: 16 PAGE: 321-347(1996)
22-epi-a-tocopherol 2S-(4'R,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0002Vitamin EFumiko Hiraharal-a-Toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data (2S,4'R,8'R)-a-tocopherol can be conveniently prepared by an alternative procedure starting from (2R,4'R,8'R)-a-tocopherol as follows. [Table 0001] << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
32-ambo-a-tocopherol 2RS-(4'R,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0003Vitamin EFumiko Hirahara2-ambo-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data (2RS,4'R,8'R)-a-tocopherol was first synthesized from trimethylhydroquinone and 1,3-dibromophythane. Subsequently, a method for condensing phytyl bromide, prepared from natural phytol, with trimethylhydroquinone in petroleum ether with zinc chloride as the catalyst, was reported. This synthesis was also achieved by directly condensing phytol with trimethylhydroquinone. << Ref. 0001>> Synthesis of (2RS,4'R,8'R)-a-tocopherol [Table 0002] << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: Kasparek,S.(1980)Chemistry of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E, a comprehensive Treasure (Machlin, L.J. ,eds.), PP7-65, Marcel Dekker, INC., New York and Basel TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
4all-rac-a-tocopherol 2RS-(4'RS,8'RS,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0004Vitamin EFumiko Hiraharaall-rac-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure dataThe true biological activity of vitamin E is determined by its ability to prevent or reverse specific vitamin E deficiency symptoms in animal in vivo (e.g., fatal resorption, muscular dystrophy, and encephlomalacia). Other tests, such as the erythrocyte hemolysis test and elevation of plasma tocopherol, have been used. RRR-a-tocopherol has been reported as 135-194% more than all-rac-a-tocopherol when evaluated by the rat resorption-gestation test , about 200% in terms of tissue retention of deuterated tocopherols in rat and human. The relationship between a-tocopherol and its derivatives was announced by USP. [Table 0008/0009] RRR-a-tocopherol has been assigned an activity of 1 mg a-TE per milligram.[Table 0010] << Ref. 0034/0035/0036>> practically insol in water , freely sol in acetone, in ethanol, in ether, in methylene chloride and in fatty oils << Ref. 0002>> Many analytical methods (colorimetric, fluorometric,TLC,GC,HPLC) have been reported for the determination of Tocopherols and tocotrienols. At the present time, HPLC methods are popular for the analysis of vitamin E. [Chromatogram 0005] << Ref. 0038>> (2RS,4'RS,8'RS)-a-tocopherol was synthesized from trimethylhydroquinone and racemic phytol.[Table 0002] << Ref. 0008>> The apparent absorption of RRR-a-tocopherol in human is found to be similar whether administered as the free phenol, the acetyl ester, or the succinyl ester.<< Ref. 0044>> All-rac-a-tocopherol compared with RRR-a-tocopherol is preferentially metabolized to a-CEHC and excreted.<< Ref. 0044>> << Ref.0002 >> AUTHOR: RRR-a-tocopherol,all-rac-a-tocopherol(1998), in European Pharmacopoeia-Supplement (Council of Europe eds.) , pp486-489 TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0034 >> AUTHOR: Kijima,S. (1993) Chemistry of Vitamin E, in Vitamin E, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp3-11,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0035 >> AUTHOR: Burton, G. W., Traber, M. G., Acuff, R. V., Walters, D. N., Kayden, H., Hughes, L., and Ingold, K. U. TITLE: Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E PubMed ID:9537614 JOURNAL: Am J Clin Nutr. VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 669-684(1998)
<< Ref.0036 >> AUTHOR: Sheppard,A.J., Pennington,A.T. and Weihrauch,J.L.(1993) Analysis and Distribution of Vitamin E in Vegetable Oils and Foods in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp9-31,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0038 >> AUTHOR: Abe,K. and Matsumoto,A.(1993) Quantitative Determination of Tocopherols, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp13-19,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0044 >> AUTHOR: Traber, M. G., and Sies, H. TITLE: Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery PubMed ID:8839930 JOURNAL: Annu Rev Nutr. VOLUME: 16 PAGE: 321-347(1996)
5b-tocopherol 2R-(4R',8R',12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,8-trimethylchroman-6-ol VVE0005Vitamin EFumiko Hiraharab-Toc C28H48O2 416.680Download ChemDraw structure dataThe true biological activity of vitamin E is determined by its ability to prevent or reverse specific vitamin E deficiency symptoms in animal in vivo (e.g., fatal resorption, muscular dystrophy, and encephlomalacia). Other tests, such as the erythrocyte hemolysis test and elevation of plasma tocopherol, have been used. RRR-b-tocopherol has been reported as 25-40% of RRR-a-tocopherol when evaluated by the rat resorption-gestation test.[Table 0008] RRR-b-tocopherol has been assigned an activity of 0.5 mg a-TE per milligram.[Table 0010] << Ref. 0034/0035/0036>> 200-210deg<< Ref. 0009>> a546.1-25=+2.9(ethanol),+0.9(benzene)deg<< Ref. 0001>>/dd-20=+6.37deg<< Ref. 0009>> Freely soluble in oils, fats, acetone, alcohol, chlororoform, ether, other fat solvents.<< Ref. 0009>> 296nm, E1%1cm=89.4(ethanol)<< Ref. 0001>> 3320,2940,1595,1458,1373,1229,1158,860cm-1 Many analytical methods (colorimetric, fluorometric,TLC,GC,HPLC) have been reported for the determination of Tocopherols and tocotrienols. At the present time, HPLC methods are popular for the analysis of vitamin E. [Chromatogram 0005] << Ref. 0038>> 1.Wheat germ 2.Sencha Tea 3.Rice bran oil 4.Mixed vegetable oil 5.High linoleic acid type margarine<< Ref. 0003/0005/0006/0033/0034>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: Kasparek,S.(1980)Chemistry of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E, a comprehensive Treasure (Machlin, L.J. ,eds.), PP7-65, Marcel Dekker, INC., New York and Basel TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: Standard Tables of Fat-soluble Food Composition in Japan (1995) Fatty Acid,Cholesterol,Vitamin E( the Science and Technology Agency,eds),,pp13-103, Ishiyaku Press Ltd. (Japan),Tokyo TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: Goh S. H. , Choo, Y. M. and Ong, S. H. TITLE: JOURNAL: J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 237 -240 (1985)
<< Ref.0006 >> AUTHOR: Leth, T., and Sondergaard, H. TITLE: Biological activity of vitamin E compounds and natural materials by the resorption-gestation test, and chemical determination of the vitamin E activity in foods and feeds PubMed ID:925769 JOURNAL: J Nutr. VOLUME: 107 PAGE: 2236-2243(1977)
<< Ref.0009 >> AUTHOR: Tocopherol(1996), in The Merck Index (Twelfth Edition), pp1620, Merck & Co., Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0033 >> AUTHOR: Ong,A.S.H.(1993) Natural Sources of Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp3-8,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0034 >> AUTHOR: Kijima,S. (1993) Chemistry of Vitamin E, in Vitamin E, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp3-11,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0035 >> AUTHOR: Burton, G. W., Traber, M. G., Acuff, R. V., Walters, D. N., Kayden, H., Hughes, L., and Ingold, K. U. TITLE: Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E PubMed ID:9537614 JOURNAL: Am J Clin Nutr. VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 669-684(1998)
<< Ref.0036 >> AUTHOR: Sheppard,A.J., Pennington,A.T. and Weihrauch,J.L.(1993) Analysis and Distribution of Vitamin E in Vegetable Oils and Foods in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp9-31,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0038 >> AUTHOR: Abe,K. and Matsumoto,A.(1993) Quantitative Determination of Tocopherols, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp13-19,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
6g-tocopherol 2R-(4'R,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,7,8-trimethylchroman-6-ol VVE0006Vitamin EFumiko Hiraharag-Toc C28H48O2 416.680Download ChemDraw structure dataThe true biological activity of vitamin E is determined by its ability to prevent or reverse specific vitamin E deficiency symptoms in animal in vivo (e.g., fatal resorption, muscular dystrophy, and encephlomalacia). Other tests, such as the erythrocyte hemolysis test and elevation of plasma tocopherol, have been used. RRR-g-tocopherol has been reported as 1-11% of RRR-a-tocopherol when evaluated by the rat resorption-gestation test.[Table 0008] RRR-g-tocopherol has been assigned an activity of 0.1 mg a-TE per milligram.[Table 0010] << Ref. 0034/0035/0036>> 200-210deg<< Ref. 0009>> a546.1-25=+3.2(ethanol),-2.4(benzene)deg<< Ref. 0001>>dd-20=-2.4deg(alc.)<< Ref. 0009>> Freely soluble in oils, fats, acetone, alcohol, chlororoform, ether, other fat solvents.<< Ref. 0009>> 298nm, E1%1cm=91.4(ethanol) 3310,2930,1613,1460,1375,1220,1143,870cm-1 Many analytical methods (colorimetric, fluorometric,TLC,GC,HPLC) have been reported for the determination of Tocopherols and tocotrienols. At the present time, HPLC methods are popular for the analysis of vitamin E. [Chromatogram 0005] << Ref. 0038>> g-Tocopherol is the major tocopherol in nature and therefore predominates in diet. 1.Soybean oil 2.Corn oil 3.Mixed vegetable oil 4.Mixed salad oil 5.Sesame oil 6.Cottonseed oil 7.Pistachio nuts 8.Walnuts 9. Sesame seeds 10.Skipjack and frigate mackerel canned with oil 11.Pine nuts 12.Kinako 13.High linoleic acid type margarine 14.Brasil nuts 15.Popcorn 16.Tunas canned with oil 17.Peanuts 18.Sencha 19.Milk chocolate 20.Buckwheat flour 21.Hazelnuts 22.Dry cowpeas 23.Rice-kojimiso 24.Raw green soybeans 25.Peanut oil << Ref. 0003/0005/0006/0033/0034>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: Kasparek,S.(1980)Chemistry of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E, a comprehensive Treasure (Machlin, L.J. ,eds.), PP7-65, Marcel Dekker, INC., New York and Basel TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: Standard Tables of Fat-soluble Food Composition in Japan (1995) Fatty Acid,Cholesterol,Vitamin E( the Science and Technology Agency,eds),,pp13-103, Ishiyaku Press Ltd. (Japan),Tokyo TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: Goh S. H. , Choo, Y. M. and Ong, S. H. TITLE: JOURNAL: J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 237 -240 (1985)
<< Ref.0006 >> AUTHOR: Leth, T., and Sondergaard, H. TITLE: Biological activity of vitamin E compounds and natural materials by the resorption-gestation test, and chemical determination of the vitamin E activity in foods and feeds PubMed ID:925769 JOURNAL: J Nutr. VOLUME: 107 PAGE: 2236-2243(1977)
<< Ref.0009 >> AUTHOR: Tocopherol(1996), in The Merck Index (Twelfth Edition), pp1620, Merck & Co., Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0033 >> AUTHOR: Ong,A.S.H.(1993) Natural Sources of Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp3-8,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0034 >> AUTHOR: Kijima,S. (1993) Chemistry of Vitamin E, in Vitamin E, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp3-11,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0035 >> AUTHOR: Burton, G. W., Traber, M. G., Acuff, R. V., Walters, D. N., Kayden, H., Hughes, L., and Ingold, K. U. TITLE: Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E PubMed ID:9537614 JOURNAL: Am J Clin Nutr. VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 669-684(1998)
<< Ref.0036 >> AUTHOR: Sheppard,A.J., Pennington,A.T. and Weihrauch,J.L.(1993) Analysis and Distribution of Vitamin E in Vegetable Oils and Foods in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp9-31,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0038 >> AUTHOR: Abe,K. and Matsumoto,A.(1993) Quantitative Determination of Tocopherols, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp13-19,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
7d-tocopherol 2R-(4'R,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,8-dimethylchroman-6-ol VVE0007Vitamin EFumiko Hiraharad-Toc C27H46O2 402.653Download ChemDraw structure dataThe true biological activity of vitamin E is determined by its ability to prevent or reverse specific vitamin E deficiency symptoms in animal in vivo (e.g., fatal resorption, muscular dystrophy, and encephlomalacia). Other tests, such as the erythrocyte hemolysis test and elevation of plasma tocopherol, have been used. RRR-d-tocopherol has been reported as 1% of RRR-a-tocopherol when evaluated by the rat resorption-gestation test.[Table 0008] RRR-d-tocopherol has been assigned an activity of 0.03 mg a-TE per milligram.[Table 0010] << Ref. 0034/0035/0036>> a546.1-25=+3.4(ethanol),+1.1(benzene)deg << Ref. 0001>>/d25&546=+3.4deg(alc.)<< Ref. 0009>> 298nm, E1%1cm=87.3(ethanol) 3360,2915,1605,1460,1375,1210,1145,855cm-1 Many analytical methods (colorimetric, fluorometric,TLC,GC,HPLC) have been reported for the determination of Tocopherols and tocotrienols. At the present time, HPLC methods are popular for the analysis of vitamin E. [Chromatogram 0005] << Ref. 0038>> 1.Soybean oil 2.Mixed vegetable oil 3.Kori-dofu 4.Dry cowpea 5.Hard type margarine 6.Soft type margarine 7.Dry azuki-beans 8.Dry soybeans 9.Mixed salad oil 10.kinako 11.Whole egg type mayonnaise 12.High linoleic acid type margarine 13.Egg yolk type mayonnaise 14.Skipjack and frigate mackerel canned with oil 15.Shortening 16.Soybean-koji miso << Ref. 0003/0005/0006/0033/0034>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: Kasparek,S.(1980)Chemistry of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E, a comprehensive Treasure (Machlin, L.J. ,eds.), PP7-65, Marcel Dekker, INC., New York and Basel TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: Standard Tables of Fat-soluble Food Composition in Japan (1995) Fatty Acid,Cholesterol,Vitamin E( the Science and Technology Agency,eds),,pp13-103, Ishiyaku Press Ltd. (Japan),Tokyo TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: Goh S. H. , Choo, Y. M. and Ong, S. H. TITLE: JOURNAL: J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. VOLUME: 62 PAGE: 237 -240 (1985)
<< Ref.0006 >> AUTHOR: Leth, T., and Sondergaard, H. TITLE: Biological activity of vitamin E compounds and natural materials by the resorption-gestation test, and chemical determination of the vitamin E activity in foods and feeds PubMed ID:925769 JOURNAL: J Nutr. VOLUME: 107 PAGE: 2236-2243(1977)
<< Ref.0009 >> AUTHOR: Tocopherol(1996), in The Merck Index (Twelfth Edition), pp1620, Merck & Co., Inc. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0033 >> AUTHOR: Ong,A.S.H.(1993) Natural Sources of Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp3-8,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0034 >> AUTHOR: Kijima,S. (1993) Chemistry of Vitamin E, in Vitamin E, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp3-11,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0035 >> AUTHOR: Burton, G. W., Traber, M. G., Acuff, R. V., Walters, D. N., Kayden, H., Hughes, L., and Ingold, K. U. TITLE: Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E PubMed ID:9537614 JOURNAL: Am J Clin Nutr. VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 669-684(1998)
<< Ref.0036 >> AUTHOR: Sheppard,A.J., Pennington,A.T. and Weihrauch,J.L.(1993) Analysis and Distribution of Vitamin E in Vegetable Oils and Foods in Vitamin E in Health and Disease (Packer,L. and Fuchs,J. eds) ,pp9-31,Marcel Dekke,Inc., New York,Basel,Hong Kong TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0038 >> AUTHOR: Abe,K. and Matsumoto,A.(1993) Quantitative Determination of Tocopherols, Its Usefulness in Health and in Curing Disease (Mino,M., Nakmura,H., Diplock,A. and Kayden,H.J. eds),pp13-19,Japan Scientific Societies Press TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
8RRS-a-tocopherol 2R-(4'R,8'S,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0008Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaRRS-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data H. Mayer and O.Isler's review is recommended to study precisely. << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
9RSR-a-tocopherol 2R-(4'S,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0009Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaRSR-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data H. Mayer and O.Isler's review is recommended to study precisely. << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
10RSS-a-tocopherol 2R-(4'S,8'S,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0010Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaRSS-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data H. Mayer and O.Isler's review is recommended to study precisely. << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
11SRS-a-tocopherol 2S-(4'R,8'S,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0011Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaSRS-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data H. Mayer and O.Isler's review is recommended to study precisely. << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
12SSR-a-tocopherol 2S-(4'S,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0012Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaSSR-a-toc C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data H. Mayer and O.Isler's review is recommended to study precisely. << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
13SSS-a-tocopherol 2S-(4'S,8'S,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol VVE0013Vitamin EFumiko HiraharaSSS-a-tocopherol C29H50O2 430.706Download ChemDraw structure data H. Mayer and O.Isler's review is recommended to study precisely. << Ref. 0008>> << Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: Isler, O., Mayer,H.(1971) [227]Synthesis of Vitamin E , in Methods in Enzymnology vol.18 (McCormick, D,B.,Wright,L. D eds.),pp241-348, Academic Press, New York and London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
145,7-dimethyltocol 2-(4'R,8'R12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,5,7-trimethylchroman-6-ol VVE0014Vitamin EFumiko Hirahara 0.000Download ChemDraw structure data 200-220degC/0.05mm 292nm, E1%1cm=83.0(ethanol) 3450,2920,1460,1375,1245,1155,1050 and 855 cm-1 (liquid film) 1H-NMR:6.49,2.59,2.14 and 1.78 ppm 5,7-Dimethyltocol was prepared by the reaction of phytol or isophytol and 2,6-dimethylhydroquinone in the presence of formic acid. << Ref. 0001>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: Kasparek,S.(1980)Chemistry of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols, in Vitamin E, a comprehensive Treasure (Machlin, L.J. ,eds.), PP7-65, Marcel Dekker, INC., New York and Basel TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
157-methyltocol 2-(4'R,8'R,12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,7-dimethylchroman-6-ol VVE0015Vitamin EFumiko Hirahara 0.000Download ChemDraw structure data 150degC(bath)/10-3mm 298nm, E1%1cm=104.1(ethanol) 3370,2890,1500,1455,1370,1240,1175,1100 and 870 cm-1 (liquid film)