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Wax

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IdImageCOMMON NAMENAMEDATA No Lipid classINFORMANTSYMBOLFORMULAMOL.WT(average)Download cdx file / Mol format file BIOOGICAL ACTIVITY PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SPECTRAL DATA CHROMATOGRAM DATA SOURCE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS METABOLISM GENETIC INFORMATION NOTE REFERENCES
MELTING POINTBOILING POINTDENSITYREFRACTIVE INDEXOPTICAL ROTATIONSOLUBILITY UV SPECTRAIR SPECTRANMR SPECTRAMASS SPECTRAOTHER SPECTRA
1Candelilla wax << Ref. 0006>> / << Ref. 0024>> / << Ref. 0025>> / << Ref. 0026>> / << Ref. 0027>> /<< Ref. 0028>>/ << Ref. 0029>> / << Ref. 0030>> / << Ref. 0031>> Candelilla wax WWA1101WaxKen-ichi Tomita 0.000Download ChemDraw structure dataUses
Owing to its high melting point, candelilla wax is used in lipsticks and hair stick to enhance temperature resistance. Apart from cosmetics, it is used in brighteness, finishing agents, electrical insulating agents, waterproofing agents, etc.. It is also added to other waxes to increase hardness.
Melting point 68-72deg C << Ref. 0006>> Melting point mesuring method << Ref. 0001>> Method 2 Iodine value 10-22 << Ref. 0006>> Iodine value mesuring method << Ref. 0005>> Prepare 30ml of cabon tetrachloride Acid Value 14-24 << Ref. 0006>> Acid Value mesuring method << Ref. 0003>> (Method 1. 3g) Use 30ml of xylene and 50ml of ethanol as a solvent,and titrate while warm Saponification Value 46-65 << Ref. 0006>> Saponification Value mesuring method << Ref. 0004>> Add 0.5N potassium hydroxide-ethanol, then add 20ml of benzene. Properties: Candelilla wax is soluble in acetone,benzene and carbon disulfide. It is soluble in petroleum ether, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride when they are hot but only sparingly soluble when they are cold. It is practically insoluble in ether and ethanol when they are cold. << Ref. 0006>> IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0001] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions
Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.)
Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0002] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions
Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0003/SP0004/SP0005] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions
Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard )Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. )
Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase.
Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute.
Injection temperature: 320degC, Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gas chromatography [Chromatogram 0001/CH0002] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions
Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard )
Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ) Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase
Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution
Origin
Candelilla wax is a hard lustrous wax extracted from the outer cover of the candelillaplant (Euphorbiaceae). In the wild state, the candelilla plant is limited to nerthwest Mexico and southern Texas in the United States. Reaching as high as 45degC in summer and as low as -20degC in winter, the seasonal temperature variation in these areas is extreme and they are very arid with little rainfall. To protect itself from such harsh conditions, the candelilla plant secretes a sap with which it covers itself. Candelilla wax is 45% hydrocabons(Hentriacontane, Tritriacontane, etc.) ,29% esters (Sitosterol, Dihydroxymiricinoleic acid, etc.) and 26% free alcohols (Myricyl alcohol, etc.),free fatty acids, lactone and resins. << Ref. 0006>>
A method of manufacture
The candelilla wax plants are harvested almost all year round. The cut plants are dried in the sun and sent to a neaeby extraction plant to extract the wax . The raw wax thus obtained is dull gray in color and is called Cerote. The cerote is then sent to a modern refining facility. << Ref. 0006>>
<< Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0006 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp316-317, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0025 >> AUTHOR: Matsumoto Isao, Ohta Tadao,Takamatsu Tasuku, and Nakano Motokiyo TITLE: Systematic analysis of natural raw waxes( carnauba wax, candelilla wax and bees wax) and pattern-analysis of carbon chain length of their components JOURNAL: Nippon Kagaku Kaishi VOLUME: 5 PAGE: 951 -957 (1972)
<< Ref.0026 >> AUTHOR: Tulloch, A. P. TITLE: Comparison of some commercial waxes by gas liquid chromatography JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 50 PAGE: 367 -371 (1973)
<< Ref.0027 >> AUTHOR: Jasefina C. Morales und Gustavo Torres E., TITLE: Chromatographishe untersuchung des harzanteils im Candelilla-wachs JOURNAL: Seifen-öle-Fette-Wachse VOLUME: 99 PAGE: 17 -22 (1973)
<< Ref.0028 >> AUTHOR: Marquez, L. C., Capella, S., and Manjarrez, A. TITLE: Study of candelilla wax as a partition liquid for gas phase chromatography JOURNAL: Rev. Soc. Quim. Mex. VOLUME: 212 PAGE: 50 -55 (1977)
<< Ref.0029 >> AUTHOR: Ashraf-Khorassani M, Taylor L T TITLE: Analysis of crude, purified, and synthetic candelilla wax using supercritical fluids. JOURNAL: Liq. Chromatogr. Gas chromatogr. VOLUME: 84 PAGE: 314 -320 (1990)
<< Ref.0030 >> AUTHOR: Brossard S, Lafosse M, and Dreux M TITLE: Analyse par CPG et CPS de cires naturelles. JOURNAL: Parfums Cosmet Aromes VOLUME: 117 PAGE: 48 -53 (1994)
<< Ref.0031 >> AUTHOR: Kuehn, G., Weidner, ST., Just, U., and Hohner, G. TITLE: Characterization of technical waxes. Comparison of chromatographic techniques and matrix-assisted laser- desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. JOURNAL: J. Chromatogr., VOLUME: 7321 PAGE: 111 -117 (1996)
2Carnauba wax<< Ref. 0007>> / << Ref. 0024>> / << Ref. 0025>> / << Ref. 0030>> / << Ref. 0032>> / << Ref. 0033>> / << Ref. 0034>> / << Ref. 0035>> Carnauba wax WWA1201WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses, Carnauba wax is used in lipsticks to raise temperature resistance and give luster and in small amounts in products requiring firmness such as creams, depilatory waxes and deodorant sticks. It is also used in ointment bases, as a lustering agent for tablets and in floor polish. Melting point 80-86degC << Ref. 0007>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Iodine value 5-14 << Ref. 0007>> Use 30ml of carbon tetrachloride << Ref. 0005>> Acid Value Not more than 10 << Ref. 0007>> Use 30ml of xylene and 50ml of ethanol as solvent,and titrate while warm. (Method 1. 3g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 78-95 << Ref. 0007>> Add 0.5N potassium hydroxide-ethanol,then add 20ml of benzene. << Ref. 0004>> Properties
Carnauba wax is typical of the hard waxes that have the highest melting points among waxes of plant origin. It is soluble in chloroform,ether and petroleum benzene when hot but sparingly soluble when it is cold. It is sparingly soluble in hot ethanol and practically insoluble in water. Observed infrared absorption is as follows 1730: uc=o, 1605: uc=c, 1460: ucH, -1175: uc-o of ester, 730 and 720: dcH of -(CH2)n- << Ref. 0007>>
IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0006] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.), Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0007] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0008/SP0009/SP0010] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard )Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase. Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC , Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gas chromatography [Chromatogram 0003/CH0004] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintainat this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution
Origin
The carnauba palm is a forest tree found in South America, particularly in northern Brazil. It grows naturally or is cultivated and reaches around 10 m in height. The leaves are fan-shaped and the wax is secreted on their surface, especially the under surface. This material consists of wax acid esters, the major component, and the other constituents listed below. << Ref. 0007>>
Alkyl Esters of Wax Acids 84-85% , (Simple esters of normal acids 5-6% , Acid esters C18-C30 5-6%, Diesters, 19-21%, Esters of hydroxylated acids, 53-55%), Free Wax Acids 3-3.5%, Lactides 2-3%, Free and Combined Polyhydric and Oxy-Alcohols 2-3%, Resins (alcohol soluble) 4-6% , Hydrocarbons 1.5-3%, Moisture and Mineral Matter 0.5-1%
A method of manufactureThe leaves are harvested between October and February and dried in the sun for several days. The wax, which forms a powder on the leaf surface, is knocked off and put into hot water. This is then filtered and the molten wax is cooled to harden. Normally, 100 leaves yield 500 g of wax.<< Ref. 0007>>
<< Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0007 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp270-271, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0025 >> AUTHOR: Matsumoto Isao, Ohta Tadao,Takamatsu Tasuku, and Nakano Motokiyo TITLE: Systematic analysis of natural raw waxes( carnauba wax, candelilla wax and bees wax) and pattern-analysis of carbon chain length of their components JOURNAL: Nippon Kagaku Kaishi VOLUME: 5 PAGE: 951 -957 (1972)
<< Ref.0030 >> AUTHOR: Brossard S, Lafosse M, and Dreux M TITLE: Analyse par CPG et CPS de cires naturelles. JOURNAL: Parfums Cosmet Aromes VOLUME: 117 PAGE: 48 -53 (1994)
<< Ref.0032 >> AUTHOR: Rowland, I. R., Butterworth, K. R., Gaunt, I. F., Grasso, P., and Gangolli, S. D. TITLE: Short-term toxicity study of carnauba was in rats PubMed ID:6890026 JOURNAL: Food Chem Toxicol. VOLUME: 20 PAGE: 467-471(1982)
<< Ref.0033 >> AUTHOR: Parent, R. A., Re, T. A., Babish, J. G., Cox, G. E., Voss, K. A., and Becci, P. J. TITLE: Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats PubMed ID:6681798 JOURNAL: Food Chem Toxicol. VOLUME: 21 PAGE: 89-93(1983)
<< Ref.0034 >> AUTHOR: Langeloh, G., Petz, M., and Schulte, E. TITLE: Detection of shellac and carnauba wax on apples by gas chromatography JOURNAL: Dtsch. Lebensm.-Rundsch VOLUME: 861 PAGE: 4 -6 (1990)
<< Ref.0035 >> AUTHOR: Ito Seisuke, Suzuki Takashi, and Fujino Yasuhiko TITLE: Wax lipid in Rice Bran JOURNAL: Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi VOLUME: 553 PAGE: 247 -253 (1981)
3Rice wax/Rice Bran wax << Ref. 0008>> / << Ref. 0009>> / << Ref. 0010>> Rice wax WWA1301WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses: Currently, rice wax is mainly used for mixing into candies and as a mold releasing agent and lubricating agent for foodstuffs. Melting point 70-83degC << Ref. 0008>>, (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Iodine value Not more than 20 << Ref. 0008>> Use 30ml of carbon tetrachloride << Ref. 0005>> Acid Value Not more than 13.5 << Ref. 0008>> Use 30ml of xylol and 50ml of ethanol as a solvent, and titrate while warm.(Method 1. 3g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 70-160 << Ref. 0008>> Use 20ml of benzol << Ref. 0004>> Properties
Rice wax occurs as light yellow to light brown,flakes or masses. It has a characteristic odor. Soluble in hot xylene, ether and benzene. Insoluble in acetone and methyl alcohol. << Ref. 0008>>
ORIGIN
Rice oil commercially produced from the offal in the milling of rice may be dewaxed before refining with acid and alkali- by the use of a DeLaval separator and basket centrifuge. The oil can also be dewaxed by the use of evacuated, unglazed pocelain cylinders covered with a filter cloth. A good yield is obtained at 20-25 deg C with suction at 50 mm Hg pressure. The crude wax containing glycerides may be separated from crude rice oil by wintering at 20-25deg C, and then treated with a solvent such as 5per cent methanol in commercial n-hexane, to effect a sharp separation of soluble and insoluble parts. Without the use of solvent the wax from the tank settlings cannot be effectively separated by filtration methods. << Ref. 0009>>
The principle constituents of rice wax ae esters of higher fatty acids and higher alcohols. It also contains unsaponifiable matter, a small amount of free fatty acid and some hydrocarbons.
a) Esters: In the caseof rice bran wax, the major fatty acids forming esters are behenic acid (C22) and lignoceric acid (C24) whereas, in the case of rice wax, they are palmitic acid (C16) and stearic acid (C18). In both b) Unsaponifiable matter: Rice wax contains 40-60% unsaponifiable matter. ( Myricyl alcohol 45%, Ceryl alcohol 22%, Isoceryl alcohol 10% and unidentifiable matter 20%)
c) Free fatty acid : Rice wax contains around 4-7% of free fatty acids of which the main ones are palmitic acid, oleic acid, linolic acid and stearic acid.
A method of manufacture: Rice wax is obtained by refining the crude wax obtained from the dewaxing or wintering process during the refining of rice bran oil extracted from rice bran. Continued to Metabolism
In the refining process, the gummy mater and phospholipids that the crude wax normally contains are removed and it is decolorized and deodorized. Rice wax can be broadly divided into two types, one of which is obtained by deoiling the crude wax oil and the other by hydrogenation of the crude wax oil or the oil produced in the wintering process. A.H. Warth has distinguished between them by calling the former rice bran wax and the latter hydrogenated rice wax, or simply rice wax. Naturally enough, the properties of the rice wax obtained by hydrogenating the wax oil vary depending on the proportion of rice bran oil in the wax and degree of hydrogenation. << Ref. 0010>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0008 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Cosmetic Ingredients Codex (1993) pp739-740, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0009 >> AUTHOR: Albin, H., Warth,The Chemistry and Technology of wax Second Edition (1956) pp237, Reinhold Publishing Corporation New York Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0010 >> AUTHOR: Fusegawa Kenzou (Supervision), The properties and application of waxes, pp10-21, Saiwai Shobo TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
4Jojoba oil << Ref. 0011>> / << Ref. 0012>> / << Ref. 0036>> / << Ref. 0037>> / << Ref. 0038>>/ << Ref. 0039>> / << Ref. 0040>> Jojoba oil WWA1401WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Jojoba oil is very compatible with the skin . It is used in a large number of cosmetics such as milky lotions, creams, lipsticks, foundations, shampoos and rinses.Otherwise, jojoba oil products such as soap, detergents, emulsifiers, surface-active polymers, plasticizers, solid and liquid lubricants, water evaporation retardants, etc..
Iodine Value 80-100 (0.3g) << Ref. 0011>> << Ref. 0005>> Acid Value Not more than 5 << Ref. 0011>> (Method 2, 10g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 80-110 << Ref. 0011>> << Ref. 0004>> Jojoba oil is a colorless to yellow, transparent, oily liquid. It is odorless, or has a faint characteristic odor. << Ref. 0011>> IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0011] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions
Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer : FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0012] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0013/SP0014] (Kanda Kenji , Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC, Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gas chromatography [Chromatogram 0005 / CH0006] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
Origin
Jojoba wax, or jojoba oil, derived from the coffee-bean-like seed of jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis( var. Californica ), or Simmondsia californica Nuttall ( Buxus chinensis Link ), of the family order Buxaceae. The jojoba, or simmondsia, is a wooden evergreen shrub, a few feet in height, which grows in abundance on rocky hillsides in Arizona, near Tucson or elsewhere, and in western Mexico. Presently in the United States and Mexico, Plantations are actively producing jojoba beans. << Ref. 0012>> Jojoba oil consists chiefly of unsaturated higher fatty acid and unsaturated higheralcohol. (Carbon No. 38-44)
Main component is Dococenyl-eicosenoate (C42) and it's chemical structure is CH3( CH2)7CH=CH ( CH2)9COO ( CH2)12CH=CH (CH2)7CH3 (37%)
A method of manufacture The seeds on pressing yield an oil which in some respects is not unlike sperm oil. The peculiar composition of jojoba oil, since it contains no glycerides, places it in a category of liquid waxes. It is composed almost entirely of high molecular weight monoethylenic acids and alcohols combined as esters. It is more convenient to operate by solvent extraction, preferably using light petroleum solvent, extracting thenuts after they have been ground. The solvent is then distilled off, and a residual oil of a slightly yellowish color is obtained. << Ref. 0012>>
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0011 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Cosmetic Ingredients Codex (1993) pp417, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0012 >> AUTHOR: Albin, H., Warth, The chemistry and Technology of wax Second Edition (1956) pp302-303, Reinhold Publishing Corporation New York Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0036 >> AUTHOR: Miwa, Thomas K. TITLE: Recent chemical research on jojoba and its uses. JOURNAL: J. Jap. Oil Chemist's Soc., VOLUME: 27 PAGE: 650 -658 (1978)
<< Ref.0037 >> AUTHOR: Hirose Takeo TITLE: Present and future of jojoba wax JOURNAL: Fragrance journal VOLUME: 21 PAGE: 10 -15 (1976)
<< Ref.0038 >> AUTHOR: Moriyoshi Keiko et al TITLE: Composition of jojoba oil JOURNAL: Zeikan Chuo Bunseki Shoho VOLUME: 28 PAGE: 43 -48 (1988)
<< Ref.0039 >> AUTHOR: Landis, P. S, Craver, R .H .SR TITLE: Solubility of jojoba oil in organic solvents JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 61 PAGE: 1879 -1880 (1984)
<< Ref.0040 >> AUTHOR: Spencer, G. F, Plattner, R.D, TITLE: Compositional analysis of natural wax ester mixtures by Tandem mass spectrometry JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 611 PAGE: 90 -94 (1984)
5Japan wax
<< Ref. 0013>> / << Ref. 0024>> / << Ref. 0041>> / << Ref. 0042>> /<< Ref. 0043>>/ << Ref. 0044>> / << Ref. 0045>> / << Ref. 0046>> / << Ref. 0047>>
Japan wax WWA1501WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Japan wax is used in pomade,and hair sticks. Apart from cosmetics, it is used in candles, pencils, crayons, as a lustering agents for furnitures.
Melting point 50-53.5degC << Ref. 0013>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Iodine Value 5-8 << Ref. 0013>> << Ref. 0005>> Specific Gravity d20&20 : 0.96-1.00 << Ref. 0013>> (Method 3) << Ref. 0002>> Acid Value Not more than 30 << Ref. 0013>> (Method 1, 5g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 205-225 << Ref. 0013>> << Ref. 0004>> Properties: Japan wax has a pearly luster and is normally in sheet form. It is soluble in chloroform, ether, benzene and carbon disulfide;partially soluble in boiling ethanol, sparingly soluble in cold ethanol and insoluble in water. As Japan wax comes under the fats, it is readily saponified by alkali yielding glycerin with hardly any unsaponifiable matter. << Ref. 0013>> IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0015] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film
12 C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0016] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12 C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1 H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0017 / SP0018 / SP0019 / SP0020] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC, Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gas chromatography [Chromatogram 0007/CH0008] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
Origin:Japan wax is produced by bleaching the fat from the mesocarp of the fruit of the wax tree a member of the lacquer tree species ( Anacardiaceae ). It is bleached in the sun or by some other means. Although this substance chemically different from ordinary waxes because it is produced from a fat, it is still commonly referred to as Japan wax. The Japanese lacquer tree also contains Japan wax. Japan wax was first used as a raw material for ' BINTSUKE', a hair-grooming preparation peculiar to Japan and since the end of Meiji period (1868-1912), ithas been used in haircare cosmetics such as pomades and hair stick. The principal constituents are glycerides of palmitic acid which account for 76-82% of Japan wax. It also contains glycerides of stearic acid (4-6%), glycerides of japanic acid (C21),tricosanedioic acid (C23), etc. (3-6.5%), free acid as palmitic acid, oleic acid, pelargonic acid, etc. (3.7-5.6%) and arachic, ceryl and myricyl alcohol as free alcohol (1.2-1.6%). << Ref. 0013>> A method of manufacture:The wax tree grows wild in large numbers in warm areas of Japan and there are many in the Kyushu area. The fruit are collected between November and February and the wax is extracted from them and refined. The wax is usually extracted by the compression method and the sun's ray, adsorbents or chemical agents are used to decolorize and bleach it. Adsorbents are used in different ways. For example, an adsorbent such as activated charcoal or acid clay is added directly to molten crude wax andthen the adsorbent is separated by filtration ; the crude wax is dissolved in a solvent suchas benzene, an adsorbent is added and after heating and mixing and filtration,the solvent is distilled off; or theprocss is done by chromatography. The following example illustrates how the wax is produced. The fruit obtained from the wax tree are dried and broken into small pieces and steam ispassed through them. Continued to Metabolism The oils and fats in the fruit are melted and removed by the steam so crude wax can be obtained through cooling and solidification. The yield is around 15% . For decolorization , the following method is often used. First, decolorizing charcoal and water areadded to the crude wax and this is thoroughly boiled. The molten wax is pouredinto cold water to form ""wax flowers""which are collected and exposed to sunlight for 20 days. If necessary, moredecolorizing charcoal and water are added to the wax flowers and they are melted and cooled to producemore waxflowers and the sun bleaching process is repeated. There is also chemical processes; one of them uses hydrogen peroxide. Wax bleached in this way is melted in water, washed in water and then solidified and dried to produce Japan wax. << Ref. 0013>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0002 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients. Second Edition (1985) pp594-596, YAKUJI NIPPO, Ltd. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0013 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation ) I (1984) pp1175-1178, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0041 >> AUTHOR: Tsujimoto, M., TITLE: Japan wax, Japanese lacquer (urushi) wax JOURNAL: J. Soc. Chem., Ind. (Japan) VOLUME: 14 PAGE: 321 -360 (1911)
<< Ref.0042 >> AUTHOR: Tsujimoto, M., TITLE: On the fatty acids of Japan wax JOURNAL: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan VOLUME: 10 PAGE: 212 -219 (1935)
<< Ref.0043 >> AUTHOR: Sano, Y., Aikawa, D., and Murase, K., TITLE: Studies on the Japan wax by gas-liquid chromatography using a hydrogen flameionization detector JOURNAL: J.Japan Oil Chemist's Soc. VOLUME: 136 PAGE: 324 -328 (1964)
<< Ref.0044 >> AUTHOR: Meguro S., Kawachi S., TITLE: Some physical properties of haze wax correlated with major fatty acids JOURNAL: J. Jap. Wood Research Soc. VOLUME: 358 PAGE: 754 -760 (1989)
<< Ref.0045 >> AUTHOR: Meguro S., Kawachi S. TITLE: Major fatty acid contents of haze wax.Changes during the growth and storage periods of haze seeds. JOURNAL: J. Jap. Wood Research Soc. VOLUME: 362 PAGE: 133 -138 (1990)
<< Ref.0046 >> AUTHOR: Schaal, Richard TITLE: Über hochschmelzende Säuren des Japan wachses, insondere über Nonadecamethylen-dicarbonsäure. JOURNAL: Ber., VOLUME: 40 PAGE: 4784 -4788 (1907)
<< Ref.0047 >> AUTHOR: Tassilly, M. E., TITLE: Alcoolyse de la cire du Japon: JOURNAL: Bull. Soc. Chim. VOLUME: 9 PAGE: 608 -615 (1911)
6Bees wax
<< Ref. 0014>> / << Ref. 0024>>/ << Ref. 0025>> /<< Ref. 0030>> / << Ref. 0048>> / << Ref. 0049>> / << Ref. 0050>> / << Ref. 0051>> / << Ref. 0052>> / << Ref. 0053>> / << Ref. 0054>> / << Ref. 0055>> / << Ref. 0056>>/ << Ref. 0057>> / << Ref. 0058>>
Bees wax WWA2101WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Yellow beeswax and white beeswax have been used as a raw material for cosmetics since long ago. Beeswax is an excellent emulsifying agent when used together with borax and it was used for this purpose before the War because surfactants had not been developed yet. It is currently a major oily raw material for cosmetics. White bees wax is a major raw material for creams but yellow beeswax is not used because it would impart color to creams which have to be pure white. So, it is used mainly for such products as makeup cosmetics and hair stick. The reason that beeswax is used for lipsticks and hair stick is that it makes it is easy to mold them into a stick form, gives a soft feeling to the touch and raises the melting point. It also has a homogenizing and dispersing action on other oils, fats, waxes and coloring materials.
Usage Examples: A) Lipstick (Beeswax 29% , Ozocerite 5%, Carnauba wax 5%, Castor oil 30%, Lanolin 5%, Cacao butter 10%, Glyceryl monostearate 3%, Liquid paraffin 5%, Eosin 1%, Lake 7%, Perfume, antioxidant, etc. qs), B) Hair stick (Bees wax 15%, Castor oil 73%, Japan wax 10%, Perfume, antioxidant, etc. 2%)Beeswax is also used in medical products as an ointment bases or in suppositories, as well as in luster agents, for lost wax process and electrotypy. << Ref. 0014>>
Melting point 60-67degC << Ref. 0014>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Acid Value 5-9, 17-22 << Ref. 0014>> Prepare the solvent with 30ml of xylene and 50ml of ethanol,and titrate while warm. (Method 1, 3g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 80-100 << Ref. 0014>> << Ref. 0004>> Properties
Bees wax occurs as a yellowish to brownish yellow mass. It has a slightly unusal odor which has hardly any taste. The color of beeswax depends on the plant pollen from which it is made and, like Japanese Pharmacopeia 10, this standard includes colors from yellowish to brownish yellow. Beeswax is a non-crystalline oily solid which is somewhat brittle when cold and its fracture has no luster. Kneading with the fingers softens it and makes it more viscous. Beeswax is soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and vegetable oils,it is sparingly soluble in benzene and carbon disulfide when cold but insoluble in water and mineral oil. << Ref. 0014>>
IR Spectrum [[SP0021] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.), Resolution: 8 cm-1 , Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0022] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0023/SP0024/SP0025/SP0026/SP0027/SP0028] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC , Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gaschromatography [Chromatogram 0009/CH0010] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes , Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
Origin
Beeswax is made by honey bees ( Apidae). It is secreted by glands in the abdomen of worker bees and used to make the honeycombs of the hive. This material is produced by refining wax from the honeycomb. There are many species of noney bee but the main ones are the European honey bee and the Oriental honey bee. Honey and wax are taken from them in many defferent countries. The European honey bee is widely kept in Europe, Africa, North America and many other parts of the world; it has been kept in Japan since its introduction in the Meiji Period (1868-1912 ). The Oriental honey bee is kept i n China, India and such Southeast Asian countries as Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar. The special feature of the wax produced by them is its low acid value. In addition to the imported European honey bee, the indigenous species Apis indica var japonica radoszkowski is also kept in Japan but the amount of wax produced from it is not very large. Beeswax was already used as a cold cream in ancient Egypt 4,000 years ago and afterwards its useexpanded as a raw material for cosmetics, medicines, abrasives and so forth. It is now one of the major raw materials used in cosmetics. Though the compositions of Oriental beeswax and European beeswax are a little different, the main components of both are esters of higher fatty acids and higher monohydric alcohols, and they also include free fatty acids, hydrocarbons and other substances.The special features of Oriental beeswax are that it contains glycerides which are not found in European beeswax, it has a large numberof lower alcohols of below C30 and there is only a small amount of free acid. Continued to Metabolism
Oriental beeswax: Ester of monohydric alcohols 78-80% [ Ceryl palmitate (18-20% ), Ceryl -16-hydroxy palmitate (57-58% ), Ceryl-7-hydroxy palmitate (4% )], Glyceride 4% (Saturated and unsaturated glycerides of C14, C16 and C18 acids), Cholesteryl palmitate below 1%, Free wax acid 5-6% (Cerotic acid, Melissic acid, Lacceroic acid, Geddic acid), Hydrocarbone 8-9% (Heptacosane, Nonacosane, Hentriacontane, Melene).
European beeswax: Ester of wax acids 71% (Myricyl palmitate, Laceryl palmitate, Myricyl cerotate, Myricyl hypogaeate, Ceryl hydroxy palmitate, Acid esters, Diesters, Acid diesters, Triesters, Hydroxy diesters), Cholesteryl esters of fatty acids 1% (Cholesteryl isovalerate), Free wax acid 13.5-14.5% [Normal acid: Saturated (Lignoceric acid, Cerotic acid, Montanic acid, Melissic acid, Psyllic acid), Unsaturated ( Hypogaeic acid)] , Hydrocarbones 10.5-13.5% [Saturated ( Pentacosane, Heptacosane, Nonacosane, Hentriacontane), Unsaturated (Melene)] << Ref. 0014>> Continued to Genetic Information

A Method of manufacture: The honeycomb is broken up and centrifuged to remove the honey. Hot water is then poured in and the raw wax mejts and floats to the surface. This is usually filtered hot and a heat-insulated filter press is used. When the wax has been filtered and foreign matter removed, it is poured into molds for forming. If the raw wax is not filtered, it is washed repeatedly in the molten state by adding hot water which removes the various foreign matter. It is then poured into molds or left to harden as it is. Foreign matter settles to the bottom in this case so it is removed by cutting off the bottom. << Ref. 0014>>
<< Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0014 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984)pp1108-1112, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0025 >> AUTHOR: Matsumoto Isao, Ohta Tadao,Takamatsu Tasuku, and Nakano Motokiyo TITLE: Systematic analysis of natural raw waxes( carnauba wax, candelilla wax and bees wax) and pattern-analysis of carbon chain length of their components JOURNAL: Nippon Kagaku Kaishi VOLUME: 5 PAGE: 951 -957 (1972)
<< Ref.0030 >> AUTHOR: Brossard S, Lafosse M, and Dreux M TITLE: Analyse par CPG et CPS de cires naturelles. JOURNAL: Parfums Cosmet Aromes VOLUME: 117 PAGE: 48 -53 (1994)
<< Ref.0048 >> AUTHOR: Ikuta K. TITLE: Research of Japanese bees wax (No-1) JOURNAL: Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi VOLUME: 33 PAGE: 1313 -1318 (1930)
<< Ref.0049 >> AUTHOR: Brueschweiler. H., Felber, Helene, Schwager, F TITLE: Bees wax-composition and determination of purity by gas chromatographic analysis JOURNAL: Fett Wiss. Technol. VOLUME: 912 PAGE: 73 -79 (1989)
<< Ref.0050 >> AUTHOR: Tulloch, A. P., Hoffman, L. L. TITLE: Canadian bees wax. Analytical values and composition of hydrocarbons, free acids, and long chain esters. JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. VOLUME: 4912 PAGE: 696 -699 (1972)
<< Ref.0051 >> AUTHOR: Markham K. R, Mitchell K. A TITLE: HPLC and GC-MS identification of the major organic constituents in New Zealand propolis JOURNAL: Phytochemistry VOLUME: 421 PAGE: 205 -211 (1996)
<< Ref.0052 >> AUTHOR: Beverly M. B, Kay P. T, and Voorhees K. J TITLE: Principal component analysis of the pyrolysis-mass spectra from African, Africanized hybrid, and European bees wax. JOURNAL: J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis VOLUME: 342 PAGE: 251 -263 (1995)
<< Ref.0053 >> AUTHOR: Greenaway W, May J, Scaysbrook T, and Whatle Y F R TITLE: Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 150 compounds in propolis. JOURNAL: Z. Naturforsch Sect C VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 111 -121 (1991)
<< Ref.0054 >> AUTHOR: Puleo S. L, TITLE: Bees wax minor components : A new approach JOURNAL: Cosmet. & Toiletries VOLUME: 1062 PAGE: 83 -89 (1991)
<< Ref.0055 >> AUTHOR: Brueschweiler H, Felber H, Schwager F TITLE: Bienewachs- Zusammensetzung und Beurteilung der Reinheit durch gas chromatographische Analyse JOURNAL: Fett Wiss Technol VOLUME: 912 PAGE: 73 -79 (1989)
<< Ref.0056 >> AUTHOR: Schulten H. R TITLE: Natural waxes investigated by soft ionization mass spectrometry. JOURNAL: Z. Naturforsch. Sect. C VOLUME: 423 PAGE: 178 -190 (1987)
<< Ref.0057 >> AUTHOR: Hillman, D. E TITLE: Characterization and analysis of waxes by gel permeation chromatography JOURNAL: Anal. Chem. VOLUME: 438 PAGE: 1007 -1013 (1971)
<< Ref.0058 >> AUTHOR: Hawthorne, Steven B., Miller, David J TITLE: Analysis of commercial waxes using capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-massspectrometry JOURNAL: J. Chromatogr. VOLUME: 3882 PAGE: 397 -409 (1987)
7Anhydrous Lanolin/Lanolin/Wool Fat << Ref. 0015>> / << Ref. 0024>>/ << Ref. 0059>>/ << Ref. 0060>> / << Ref. 0061>> / << Ref. 0062>> / << Ref. 0063>> / << Ref. 0064>> / << Ref. 0065>> / << Ref. 0066>> / << Ref. 0067>> / << Ref. 0068>> / << Ref. 0069>> / << Ref. 0070>> / << Ref. 0071>> / << Ref. 0072>> / << Ref. 0073>> / << Ref. 0074>> / << Ref. 0075>> / << Ref. 0076>> Anhydrous Lanolin WWA2201WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Up till now lanolin has been used creams, lipsticks and other cosmtics because of its excellent affinity with the skin, adhesion and moistrizing capability as well as its very good water holding capacity and emulsion capacity.However, there have been problems with its color, odor and adhesion and, being a natural substance, its qualities may change and over time become rancid. As a result, its direct use has been decreasing in modern cosmetics. Because of this, lanolin is used as a raw material for cosmetics in different forms, made by removing some of its structural components and reacting them with other substances to produce derivatives which retain the good characteristics and overcome the problems, or substances in which the characteristics of lanolin have been enhanced. << Ref. 0015>>
Melting point 37-43degC << Ref. 0015>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Iodine Value 18-36 (0.8g) << Ref. 0015>>
Use chloroform and iodine monobromide TS instead of carbon tetrachloride and iodine monochloride TS, respectively. << Ref. 0005>>
Acid Value Not more than 1.0 << Ref. 0015>> (Method 1, 5g) << Ref. 0003>> Properties
Anhydrous lanolin(Lanolin) is a semisolid oily substance which is yellowish in color and very tenacious. It has a slightlyunusal odor. It is readily soluble in ether, petroleum ether and petroleum benzene but sparingly soluble in ethanol. Though insoluble in water, lanolin absorbs around twice its volume of water. It exhibits excellent emulsification. Lanolin is not saponified by sodium hydroxide but can be saponified if heated with an alkali/ethanol solution under pressure. << Ref. 0015>>
IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0029] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0030] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0031/SP0032/SP0033/SP0034/SP0035/SP0036] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ) Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC, Carrier gas: He, Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gaschromatography [Chromatogram 0011/CH0012] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min., Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution.
Origin : In 1883, Liebreich and Braun succeeded in refining the substance secreted on sheep's wool, gave thisoily substance the name lanolin and took out a patent on it. Unna found out that it could be used for ointments and cosmetics, obtained a saponification product of lanolin and managed to separate lanolin alcohol from it. Lanolin is mainly a mixture of esters of higher fatty acids and higher alcohols but also contains free fatty acids, free alcohols and hydrocarbons. It thus differs chemically from the oils and fats and is classified as a wax. The fatty acid present in greatest amount is anteiso fatty acid ( CH3CH2CH( CH3)(CH2)2nCOOH (n=2-13) which comprises around 33% of the acid fraction. Next comes isofatty acid ( ( CH3)2CH(CH2)2nCOOH (n=3-12) comprising 26% of the acid fraction. Other fatty acids include normal fatty acid ( ( CH3)( CH2)2nCOOH (n=4-12) and hydroxy fatty acid ( CH3(CH2)2n-1CH ( OH) COOH ( n=6 or 7 ). The higher alcohol present in greatest amount is sterol (mostly cholesterol) comprising 35-40% of the neutral fraction and after it comes triterpenoid sterol (mostly lanosterol ) comprising 25-30% of the neutral fraction. Aliphatic monohydric alcohol is also present. << Ref. 0015>> A method of manufacture : Lanolin is produced from the secretion on sheep's wool and most of it is obtained as a by-product during the processing of sheep's wool. Broadly speaking, 4main methods are used to refine the sheep's grease, the raw material of lanolin,and all of them involve recovering it from the solution used to clean the sheep; wool. Continued to Metabolism In the first one, the grease is washed with soap and alkali and then emulsified. The emulsion is then destroyed by adding acid to obtain the lanolin. This method is mainly used in Britain. With this method, however, the lanolin contains large amounts of free fatty acids which have been hydrolyzed by the acid and this causes problems with the color and the smell. The second is known as the bubbling separation method. In this method, the solution used for cleaning the sheep's wool is aerated so that the grease collects at the top. This is then washed with water and heated to separate the grease and the water. This is the method used in Australia. In the third method, soap, alkali or a combination of soap and alkali, or a synthetic detergent is used to cleanse the sheep's wool and the emulsion of the grease (crude lanolin) thus formed is then centrifuged to obtain lanolin. This is the method primarily used in Japan and the United States. It is an excellent method because it overcomes the problems of color and odor.With the fourth method, an organic solvent is used to extract the lanolin from the sheep's wool. With the recent strengthening of regulations on drainage, this method is now much used. As the grease obtained by the above methods contains various impurities, if required, it is refined further to produce purer lanolin. It may be filtered, treated with alkali, bleached and deodorized using activated charcoal or china clay. << Ref. 0015>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0015 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp1238-1240, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0059 >> AUTHOR: Weitkamp, A. W TITLE: The acidic constituents of Degras (wool fat, wool wax). A new method of structure elucidation. JOURNAL: J. Am. Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 67 PAGE: 447 -454 (1945)
<< Ref.0060 >> AUTHOR: Lamparczyk, Henryk, Miszkiel, Marian, Wesolowski, and Marek TITLE: Thermoanalytical and gas chromatographic evaluation of wool wax alcohols supported by principal component analysis. JOURNAL: Thermochim. Acta. VOLUME: 179 PAGE: 177 -185 (1991)
<< Ref.0061 >> AUTHOR: Lamparczyk, H., Miszkiel, M. TITLE: Gas chromatographic evaluation of wool wax alcohols supported by principal component analysis. JOURNAL: Chromatographia VOLUME: 31 PAGE: 243 -246 (1991)
<< Ref.0062 >> AUTHOR: Jourda, Mlle ; Ponchel; Moxhet, C. ; Brach, J. TITLE: Estimation of detergent, free alcohol and cholesterol content of wool wax. JOURNAL: Bull. Sci. Inst. Text. Fr. VOLUME: 1143 PAGE: 9 -23 (1982)
<< Ref.0063 >> AUTHOR: Fawaz, F., Miet, C., and Puisieux, F. TITLE: [Analysis of ointments, oils and waxes, XIV. Composition of lanolin. 3. Study of the hydroxylated acids of total lanolin and its various fractions] PubMed ID:4441000 JOURNAL: Ann Pharm Fr. VOLUME: 32 PAGE: 59-68(1974)
<< Ref.0064 >> AUTHOR: Fawaz, F., Chaigneau, M., and Puisieux, F. TITLE: [Analysis of ointments, oils and waxes. XV. -- Chemical composition of lanolin. 4. The aliphatic alcohols of total lanoline and its different fractions] PubMed ID:4433122 JOURNAL: Ann Pharm Fr. VOLUME: 32 PAGE: 215-225(1974)
<< Ref.0065 >> AUTHOR: Modrzejewski, Feliks; Kwiatkowska, Maria TITLE: Thin layer chromatography of steroids from lanolin JOURNAL: Ann. Acad. Med. Lodz VOLUME: 12 PAGE: 373 -377 (1971)
<< Ref.0066 >> AUTHOR: Modi, Giuseppe; Simiani, Giuliano TITLE: Determination of cholesterol and lanosterol in lanolin JOURNAL: Boll. Lab. Chim. Prov. VOLUME: 222 PAGE: 151 -167 (1971)
<< Ref.0067 >> AUTHOR: Zelenetskaya, A. A. ; Glukhova, O. L. TITLE: Chromatographic determination of hydrocarbons in lanolin and wool fat. JOURNAL: Maslo-Zhir. Prom VOLUME: 367 PAGE: 33 -34 (1970)
<< Ref.0068 >> AUTHOR: Fawaz ; Chaigneau, Marcel; Giry, Lucien; Puisieux, Francis TITLE: Mass spectrometry study of lanolin hydrocarbons JOURNAL: C.R. Acad. Sci., Ser. C VOLUME: 270 PAGE: 1577 -1880 (1970)
<< Ref.0069 >> AUTHOR: Clark E. W. TITLE: Estimation of the general incidence of specific lanolin allergy. JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet., Chemist's of Great Britain VOLUME: 267 PAGE: 323 -335 (1975)
<< Ref.0070 >> AUTHOR: Clark E. W. TITLE: Estimation of the general incidence of specific lanolin allergy. JOURNAL: Cosmetic & Toiletries VOLUME: 916 PAGE: 12 -14 (1976)
<< Ref.0071 >> AUTHOR: Mortensen, T. TITLE: Allergy to lanolin PubMed ID:455960 JOURNAL: Contact Dermatitis. VOLUME: 5 PAGE: 137-139(1979)
<< Ref.0072 >> AUTHOR: Sato, Y., and Kobayashi, T. TITLE: [Allergenicity of lanolin in guinea pig assay] PubMed ID:7171316 JOURNAL: Arerugi. VOLUME: 31 PAGE: 1205-1214(1982)
<< Ref.0073 >> AUTHOR: Kozuka T. TITLE: Contact dermatitis of lanolin. JOURNAL: Medicine & Drug Journal VOLUME: 1241 PAGE: 171 -177 (1976)
<< Ref.0074 >> AUTHOR: Kozuka T. et al TITLE: Contact dermatitis of lanolin JOURNAL: Skin Rsearch VOLUME: 181 PAGE: 35 -37 (1976)
<< Ref.0075 >> AUTHOR: Sugai, T. et al TITLE: The actual condition of lanolin hypersensitivity JOURNAL: Skin Research VOLUME: 202 PAGE: 239 - (1978)
<< Ref.0076 >> AUTHOR: Velluz L, Lederer E TITLE: Sur les constituants de la graisse de laine. I. Essai de mise au point de la question jusqu'a ce jour, JOURNAL: Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol., VOLUME: 27 PAGE: 211 - (1945)
8Spermaceti << Ref. 0016>> / << Ref. 0024>> / << Ref. 0040>> / << Ref. 0077>> / << Ref. 0078>> / << Ref. 0079>> Spermaceti WWA2301WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Spemaceti is used as a raw material for cosmetics, candles and octyl alcohol.
Melting point 42-50degC << Ref. 0016>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Acid Value Not more than 1 << Ref. 0016>> (Method 1, 5g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 118-135 << Ref. 0016>> << Ref. 0004>> Properties
Spermaceti occurs as a white, semitransparent, lustrous substance having a soft feeling to the touch. If left exposed to the air for long periods of time, it becomes yellowish and slightly rancid. Spermaceti is insoluble in water and ethanol when cold. It is soluble in ethanol and acetone when hot as well as in ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide and fatty oils but only sparingly soluble in petroleum benzene.
Origin : Spermaceti is produced from the wax found in the head cavities of the sperm whale. Largest among the toothed whales or cachalots, the sperm whale can be 20 m long and its skull reaches 7 m in circumference. The wax inside the head cavities occurs as an oily liquid. Spermaceti is also present in small amounts in the subcutaneous fat of the sperm whale and the bottlenose whale( Balaena rostrata). One sperm whale yields at least 3 tons of whale oil and at least 250 kg of spermaceti. The principal constituents of spermaceti is cetyl palmitate ( C15H31COOC16H33) whose content reaches 90%. It also contains small amounts of fatty acid esters and free alcohol as indicated by the following. (Fatty acid esters 97.5-98%, Cetyl palmitate 90-93%). There are also small amounts of myristyl myristate (1% max. ), cetyl stearate ( 1.1-1.5% ) and cholesteryl palmitate (2-3% ) as well as trace amounts of such substances as C12-C16 fatty acids, cholesterol, oleyl myristate, oleyl oleate, and oleyl palmitoleate. << Ref. 0016>>
A method of manufacture: Because the liquid spermaceti in the cranical cavity hardens after the whale has died, it is pumped out together with the oily liquid and separaed from it by filtration or compression in order to obtain crude spermaceti. As the crude spermaceti also contains oils and fats and other impurities, it is washed with hot water, melted, filtered and washed repeatedly with a dilute sodium hydroxide or potassium carbonate solution in order to refine it. << Ref. 0016>>
<< Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0016 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984) pp400-402, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0040 >> AUTHOR: Spencer, G. F, Plattner, R.D, TITLE: Compositional analysis of natural wax ester mixtures by Tandem mass spectrometry JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 611 PAGE: 90 -94 (1984)
<< Ref.0077 >> AUTHOR: Carlier, A., Chaigneau, M., Giry, L., Puisieux, F., and Le Hir, A. TITLE: [Analysis of ointments. VI. Study of the composition of spermaceti by mass spectrometry] PubMed ID:5753173 JOURNAL: Ann Pharm Fr. VOLUME: 26 PAGE: 599-602(1968)
<< Ref.0078 >> AUTHOR: Holloway, P. J. TITLE: The chromatographic analysis of spermaceti PubMed ID:4386746 JOURNAL: J Pharm Pharmacol. VOLUME: 20 PAGE: 775-779(1968)
<< Ref.0079 >> AUTHOR: Hilditch, T. P., and Lovern, J. A., TITLE: The head and blubber oil of the sperm whale I - Quantitative determination of the mixed fatty acid present. JOURNAL: J. Soc. Chem. Ind., VOLUME: 47 PAGE: 105 -111 (1928)
9Orange Roughy oil << Ref. 0017>> / << Ref. 0018>> / << Ref. 0040>> / << Ref. 0080>> / << Ref. 0081>> / << Ref. 0082>> Orange Roughy oil WWA2401WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Orange roughy oil spreads extremely well so it is used widely in cosmetics for milky lotion, creams, lipsticks, foundations, shampoos, rinses, etc. It is also used as a raw material for industrial oil preparations.
Iodine Value 73-89 << Ref. 0017>> << Ref. 0005>> Acid Value Not more than 1 << Ref. 0017>> (Method 1, 10g) << Ref. 0003>> Saponification Value 98-108 << Ref. 0017>> << Ref. 0004>> Properties
Orange Roughy oil is a colorless to pale yellow, transparent, oily liquid. It has a faint characteristic odor. << Ref. 0017>>
IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0037] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement Operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1, Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film .
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0038] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC,Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform.
GC/MS Spectrum [Spectrum 0039/SP0040/SP0041/SP0042] (Kanda Kenji Shiseido Research Center 1995 )
Gas chromatograph- mass spectrometry operation conditions,Equipment: Gas chromatograph 5980 (Hewlett Packard ), Mass spectrometer: 5970 (Hewlett Packard ),Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.25 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.15 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 40degC for 3.5 minutes, then raise to 200degC at a rate of 10degC per minute, and then at 20degC per minute up to 350 degC. Maintain at this temperature for 20 minutes and then raise to 400 degC at a rate of 50 degC per minute. Injection temperature: 320degC , Carrier gas: He Mass range: 40-800, Split ratio: 1: 40, Sample treatment: add 100 ml N,O-Bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide to test sample( around 5mg ) and heat at 100degC for 10 minutes, cool and make up to 1.5ml with n-hexane.
Gaschromatography [Chromatogram 0013 / CH0014] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintainat this temperature for 12.5 minutes , Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ), Splitless: purge start time 2 min. Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
Origin : The catching of the deep sea teleost fish orange roughy ( Hoplostetbus atranticus), black oreo ( Allocyttus sp. ) and small spined oreo ( Pseudocyttus maculatus ) from depths of up to 1,200 m has recently been commercialized within the New Zealand 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone. The orange roughy is caught primarily for its white edible flesh, but increasing importance is being placed on the oil from this and other species. The species H. atlanticus, thought to be the same as the single example of a fish called H. gilcbristi, was found by Mori et al. to contain wax esters exclusively in the muscle lipids. Other work confirmed that the oil found in the muscle lipid of orange roughy is predominantly wax esters, with a minor amount of triacylglycerols. The oils, or more correctly liquid waxes, are obtained as by-products from the fish and can be recovered from fish waste either at sea-or shore-based plants. The lipid fraction of the deep water fish species orange roughy ( Hoplostetbus atlanticus ), black oreo ( Allocyttus sp. ) and small spined oreo ( Pseudocyttus maculatus) had wax esters with even carbon numbers over the range C30 to C46 as the major components.
Gas chromatographic composition of the wax ester fraction of the total lipid of orange roughy ( H. atlanticus ), black oreo ( Allocyttus sp. ), small spined oreo ( P. maculatus ). << Ref. 0018>> [Table 0001]
<< Ref.0003 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp479-480, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0004 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp592, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0005 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp503-504, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0017 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Cosmetic Ingredients Codex (1993) pp537, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0018 >> AUTHOR: BUISON, D. H., Body, D. R., Dougherty, G. J., Eyres, L., and Vlieg, P. TITLE: Oil from deep water fish species as a substitute for sperm whale and jojoba oils. JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 599 PAGE: 390 -395 (1982)
<< Ref.0040 >> AUTHOR: Spencer, G. F, Plattner, R.D, TITLE: Compositional analysis of natural wax ester mixtures by Tandem mass spectrometry JOURNAL: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., VOLUME: 611 PAGE: 90 -94 (1984)
<< Ref.0080 >> AUTHOR: Sekiguchi Youichi TITLE: A special character and utilization of orange roughy oil JOURNAL: Fragrance Journal VOLUME: 1712 PAGE: 36 -38 (1989)
<< Ref.0081 >> AUTHOR: Hayashi K. et al TITLE: Occurrence of unusually high level of wax ester in deep- sea Teleost fish muscle,Hoplostethus atlanticus. JOURNAL: Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., VOLUME: 46 PAGE: 459 -463 (1980)
<< Ref.0082 >> AUTHOR: Mori M. et al TITLE: Two species of Teleosts having wax ester or diacyl glyceryl esters in the muscle as a major lipid JOURNAL: Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., VOLUME: 44 PAGE: 363 -367 (1978)
10Ceresin/Purified Ozokerite
<< Ref. 0019>> / << Ref. 0024>>
Ceresin WWA3101WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Because ceresin has a high melting point, forms stable emulsions and is colorlss and odorless, it is used in such cosmetic products as lipsticks, creams and hair stick. As examples of other applications, it is used together with paraffin for mimeographpaper, shoe polish and lustering agents.
Melting point 61-95degC << Ref. 0019>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Properties
Ceresin occurs as colorless or white,crystalline masses, having a faint, characteristic odor and no taste.Ceresin has an external appearance and physical and chemical characteristics similar to paraffin, but its molecular weight,specific gravity, viscosity, hardness and melting point are higher sim75degC while Utah Wax often has a melting point around 90degC. Ceresin is formed from needle shaped or short plate shaped microcrystals. It is soluble in carbon disulfide, petroleum ether, toluene, benzene and chloroform but only sparingly soluble in ethanol.<<0019>
IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0043] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1, Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film.
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0044] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform.
Gaschromatography [Chromatogram 0015 / CH0016] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ),Splitless: purge start time 2 min.,Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution.
Origin : The name ceresin is formed from two latin words : cere which meaning ""beeswax ""and sin meaning ""without"". The name thus signifies that it is a waxy substance that is unlike beeswax.Ceresin is produced from ozocerite. The first ceresin which had commercial value was made by Pilt and Ujhelji in 1870 by first treating ozocerite with sulfuric acid and then refining it using activated charcoal. In addition to the substance made by refining ozocerite, ceresin sometimes refers to a mixture of paraffin and ozocerite and in Pharmacopoea Helvetica, ceresin is called paraffin.The major constituents of ceresin are isoparaffins corresponding to CnH2n and some of them correspond to CnH2n+2, e.g. Narcosan (C29H60), Cerosan (C30H62), Hentriacontan (C37H64 ), Dotriacontan (C32H66), Pentaacontan (C35H72), etc. << Ref. 0019>> A method of manufacture: Some of the major production areas for ozocerite are Galicia in southern Poland, around Lake Baikal in Russia and Utah and Texas in the United States. In these areas, ozocerite is found as irregular mineal veins or as a black mass in clay strata. After being dug out, the ozocerite is heated to melt it and any earth or rock is removed. If necessary, it is heated to 115-120degC to remove any moisture and then treated with sulfuric acid or fuming sulfuric acid. After neutralization, it is decolorized using activated charcoal or silica gel and filtered. If decolorizing is not sufficient, it is repeatedly treated with sulfuric acid and subjected to adsorption filtration to produce more refined ceresin. Continued to Metabolism Another mrthod of producing cersin involves dissolving ozocerite in ligroin, treating with activated clay and then removing the high boiling point fraction. Ceresin available on the market may be mixed with paraffin or a small amount of carnauba wax may be added to it to raise the melting point. << Ref. 0019>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0019 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984)pp650-652, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
11Paraffin
<< Ref. 0020>> / << Ref. 0024>> / << Ref. 0031>> / << Ref. 0058>>/ << Ref. 0083>> / << Ref. 0084>> / << Ref. 0085>>/ << Ref. 0086>> / << Ref. 0087>> / << Ref. 0088>> / << Ref. 0089>> / << Ref. 0090>>
Paraffin WWA4101WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Like other mineral raw materials, paraffin is colorless, odorless and inactive, it undergoes no changes in quality or decomposition, is easy to emulsify and low in price. It is therefore used together with oily materials such as animal and plant waxes and synthetic esters in products like creams, lipsticks and hair stick.It is also widely used in such items as ointment bases, shoe polish, candles, lusteringagents and paraffin paper.
Melting point 50-70degC << Ref. 0020>> (Method 2) << Ref. 0001>> Properties
Paraffin occurs as a colorless, white, semitransparent waxlike solid whose surface has an oily feeling like that of grease. It has a crystalline fracture which is often very distinct. It has a characteristic odor, and no taste. The specific gravity is mostly in the 0.89-0.92 range. Paraffin is soluble in ether, benzene, chloroform, petroleum benzene, carbon disulfide and hot fats and oils. At ordinary temperatures, it is not affected by acids or alkalis but at high temperatures, it is decomposed by sulfuric acid, nitric acid, nitric acid,etc. When hot, paraffin reacts with chlorine and sulfur. For instance, melting paraffin and passing chlorine over it produces hydrogen chloride and an oily liquid with a lowered melting point through the chlorine substitution which takes place. Under reduced pressure, it distills with no decomposition. Under normal pressure, it distills at 360degC or above with some decomposition producing low melting point paraffin. When repeatedly heated to 150-200degC in air, paraffin decomposes becoming a colored, odoriferous substance. << Ref. 0020>>
IR Spectrum [Spectrum 0045] (Ishiwata Katsumi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Infrared absorption spectrum measurement operation conditions, Equipment: Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FTS-40 (Biorad Co., Ltd.) , Resolution: 8 cm-1, Integration factor: 64, Wave number range: 400cm-1-4000cm-1 , Sample treatment: Potassium bromide tablets or liquid film .
12C-NMR Spectrum [Spectrum 0046] (Nishiya Hiroshi Shiseido Research Center 1993 )
12C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry operation conditions, Equipment: JEOL-EX400 (Japan Electronics Co., Ltd. ), Standard substance: Tetramethylsilane (0.00 ppm ), Irradiation mode: 1H full irradiation, Measurement temperature: 40degC, Deuterium solvent: Deuterium chloroform.
Gaschromatography [Chromatogram 0017/CH0018] (Nakahara Kazuyoshi Shiseido Research Center 1997 )
Gas chromatography operation conditions, Equipment: Gas chromatograph 6980 ( Hewlett Packard ), Column: ULTRA ALLOY plus-1 ( HT ) ( Frontier Laboratories Ltd. ), Internal diameter: 0.50 mm, gas chromatograph capillary column joined to a 15 m long metal tube to produce a 0.50 mm thick film of dimethyl silicone as the liquid phase, Column temperature: maintain at 60 degC for 2 minutes, then raise to 370 degC at a rate of 20 degC per minute and maintain at this temperature for 12.5 minutes, Detector: FID, 380 degC, Injection temperature: 370 degC, Injection volume: 1 ml, Carrier gas: He, 33 kpa, 10ml/min. (at 40 degC ),Splitless: purge start time 2 min., Sample solution: 1 % isopentane/ pyridine ( 9:1 ) solution or 1 % isopentane solution .
Origin: In 1809, Fuchs discovered that paraffin was present in petroleum and, in 1830, C.Reichenbach obtained a substance from brown coal tar which was stable in acid or alkali and gave it the name paraffin. The principal constituents are normal paraffins, but paraffin often also contains 2-3% isoparaffin and naphthene. The carbon number ranges from C16-C40 with C20-C30 being particularly common. << Ref. 0020>>
A method of manufacture : Paraffin is made by distilling the parafiin-base crude oil in crude oil and subjecting the substance which remains at the end to steam distillation . Vacuum distillation orcontinuous distillation using a Foster pipe still may also be used. The distillate is then cooled usually employing a double steel pipe. The wax containing oil fractionvapor is passed through the inner pipe and a cooling liquid such as calcium chloride or magnesium chloride passed between the pipe in the reverse direction. Cooling to -6--10degC leaves a solid inside the inner pipe. This is removed and put in a compressing device which separates it into oil, which is extruded, and soft wax. As the extruded oil still contains a small amount of paraffin, it is again cooled in the cooling apparatus and compressed once more. The substance produced by these processes is called 'hard wax' (the paraffin product ). As the soft wax normally contains 45-55% oil, it is subjected to 'sweating' to produce the hard wax. Sweating involves melting the soft wax and placing it in a 'sweating plate'. As soft wax will solidify if allowed to cool, the temperature is steadily raised and the oil is 'sweated out' from between the solid matters and drains away. As the hard wax obtained by separating out the oil in this way contains impurities, it is washed with sulfuric acid at 70-80degC . Continued to Metabolism
It is then washed with sodium hydroxide solution and hot water, dried by blowing dry hot air into it and then decolorized using acid clay as an adsorbent. If it is difficult to achieve complete decolorization, bone black or activated charcoal are used. Complete decolorization is also achieved by hydrogenation using nickel as a catalyst and treatment with acid clay.Another way of removing the oil is to dissolve the stock oil in a solvent such as propane and then, in a cold room, directly evaporate the propane. If the material is kept at low temperature, the solid material will crystallize enabling it to be separated using pressure filtration apparatus. << Ref. 0020>> << Ref.0001 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (1985) pp522-524, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0020 >> AUTHOR: The Japanese Standards of Cosmetic Ingredients Second Edition (Annotation) I (1984)pp800-802, YAKUJI NIPPO, LTD. TITLE: JOURNAL: VOLUME: PAGE: - ()
<< Ref.0024 >> AUTHOR: Tsuji, S., Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., and Harada, M. TITLE: General analysis of various natural waxes in cosmetics JOURNAL: J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jap. VOLUME: 192 PAGE: 79 -89 (1985)
<< Ref.0031 >> AUTHOR: Kuehn, G., Weidner, ST., Just, U., and Hohner, G. TITLE: Characterization of technical waxes. Comparison of chromatographic techniques and matrix-assisted laser- desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. JOURNAL: J. Chromatogr., VOLUME: 7321 PAGE: 111 -117 (1996)
<< Ref.0058 >> AUTHOR: Hawthorne, Steven B., Miller, David J TITLE: Analysis of commercial waxes using capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-massspectrometry JOURNAL: J. Chromatogr. VOLUME: 3882 PAGE: 397 -409 (1987)
<< Ref.0083 >> AUTHOR: Barker Arthur TITLE: The chromatographic analysis of refined and synthetic waxes. JOURNAL: J.Chromatogr. Libr VOLUME: 56 PAGE: 55 -93 (1995)
<< Ref.0084 >> AUTHOR: Gruner, Eda; Muurisepp, Aleksander-Mati; Liiv, Milana TITLE: Chromato-mass spectrometric investigation of the ethanol extract of mineral wax (mumie) JOURNAL: Eesti Tead. Akad. Toim., Keem VOLUME: 413 PAGE: 132 -139 (1992)
<< Ref.0085 >> AUTHOR: Geahchan, A., Le Gren, I., Chambon, P., and Chambon, R. TITLE: Improved method for determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in pharmacopoeial paraffin and mineral oils PubMed ID:1757422 JOURNAL: J Assoc Off Anal Chem. VOLUME: 74 PAGE: 968-973(1991)
<< Ref.0086 >> AUTHOR: Giles, J.J. TITLE: The analysis of waxes and greases using high resolution gas chromatography. JOURNAL: J.Forensic Sci. Soc. VOLUME: 274 PAGE: 231 -239 (1987)
<< Ref.0087 >> AUTHOR: Thorpe T.C. G TITLE: Petroleum waxes: Their use and evaluation for paper packaging. JOURNAL: J. Inst. Petrol., VOLUME: 37 PAGE: 275 -315 (1951)
<< Ref.0088 >> AUTHOR: Ludwig F. J. TITLE: Analysis of microcrystalline and paraffin waxes by means of infrared spectra in the molte state. JOURNAL: Anal. Chem., VOLUME: 37 PAGE: 1737 -1741 (1965)
<< Ref.0089 >> AUTHOR: Levy, E. J. Doyle R. R et al TITLE: Identification of components in paraffin wax by high temperature gas chromatographyand mass spectrometry. JOURNAL: Anal. Chem., VOLUME: 33 PAGE: 698 -704 (1961)
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12Microcrystalline wax
<< Ref. 0021>> / << Ref. 0024>> / << Ref. 0057>> / << Ref. 0058>> / << Ref. 0091>>
Microcrystalline wax WWA4201WaxKen-ichi Tomita Mixture 0.000Uses
Microcrystalline wax is highly viscous, it has good extensibility, does not become brittle at low temperature, has very fine microcrystals, a high melting point and shows excellent adhesion, particularly when it is heated. When mixed with other waxes, it inhibits crystal growth and if it is mixed with liquid oils, sweating is prevented. In view of these and oter excellent characteristics, it is widely used as an oily ingredient for cosmetics ( creams, lipsticks, etc. ). As mentioned as a damp proofing material for military supplies and is widely used today in paper products, for example in waterproof and damp proof paper, laminated paper, packaging paper and oil and grease proof paper. Afterward, various research on microcrystalline wax has produced application in such areas as the rubber industry, electrical insulation materials, polishing waxes, printing ink and paints, waterproofing textiles and heat adhesives.