Difference between revisions of "Category:LBSP"

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==Sphingolipids in All Kingdoms==
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{{:Category:ScientificClassification/LBSC}}

Latest revision as of 07:59, 15 August 2022


Upper classes: LB LBS


Sphingomyelin

Sphingomyelin (SM) is a ceramide linked with phosphocholine, and is found in nerves of vertebrate, especially myelin sheath. The long-chain base of SM is mostly d18:1 and some d18:0, just like glycosphingolipid. Fatty acid components are length 16-24 and hydroxy fatty acids are not included.[1]

スフィンゴミエリン (SM) はセラミドにホスホコリンが結合した構造で、脊椎動物の神経系、特にミエリン鞘に多くあります。SMの長鎖塩基はスフィンゴ糖脂質と同様に d18:1 が多く、 d18:0 も含まれます。脂肪酸は鎖長 16-24 で構成され、ヒドロキシ酸は通常含まれません。

| OH = O
(C14-chain)OーPーOCH2CH2N+(CH3)3
(fatty acid) ー | NH | OH


Biosynthesis

Sphingomyelin synthase is classified into three groups (SMS1, SMS2, SMSr), and two of them synthesize SM at Golgi (SMS1) and plasma membrane (SMS2). In mammals, a protein called CERT transports ceramide from ER to Golgi to synthesize SM. For degradation of SM, many enzymes are known that function in acidic, neutral, or alkaline conditions.[2]

SM合成酵素には3種類あり (SMS1, SMS2, SMSr)、そのうちの2種がゴルジ体 (SMS1) と細胞膜 (SMS2) でSMを合成します。哺乳動物ではSM合成時にセラミドを小胞体からゴルジ体に運ぶタンパク質CERTが知られています。SM分解酵素 (SMase) は種類が多く、酸性、中性、アルカリ性で働く酵素があります。

Mammalian SM synthase family (SMS1 in golgi; SMS2 in plasma membrane)
Phosphatidylcholine + Ceramide → Sphingomyelin + 1,2-Diacylglycerol
SM degradation (Sphingomyelinase) SMase
Sphingomyelin → Ceramide + Phosphocholine

Bioactivity

SM involves in cellular absorption of transferrin, cancer, and arterial sclerosis. Niemann-Pick disease type A / B, an inborn metabolic disease, is caused by accumulation of SM through the shortage of acid sphingomyelinase.[3]

SMはトランスフェリンの細胞内吸収、がん、動脈硬化に関係します。先天性代謝異常症のニーマンピック病A型、B型は酸性SMaseの不足によりSMが蓄積する疾患です。

  1. Merrill, A.H. "Sphingolipid and Glycosphingolipid Metabolic Pathways in the Era of Sphingolipidomics" Chem. Rev. 2011, 111, 6387–6422. PMID 21942574
  2. Gault CR, Obeid LM, Hannun YA. "An overview of sphingolipid metabolism: from synthesis to breakdown" Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;688:1-23. PMID 20919643, Yamaji T, Hanada K. "Sphingolipid metabolism and interorganellar transport: localization of sphingolipid enzymes and lipid transfer proteins" Traffic 2015 16:101-22.PMID 25382749 Zhang Y, Cheng Y, Hansen GH, Niels-Christiansen LL, Koentgen F, Ohlsson L, Nilsson A, Duan RD. "Crucial role of alkaline sphingomyelinase in sphingomyelin digestion: a study on enzymeknockout mice" J Lipid Res. 2011 52:771-81 PMID 21177474
  3. Slotte JP. "Biological functions of sphingomyelins" Prog Lipid Res. 2013; 52:424-37.PMID 23684760, Horinouchi K, Erlich S, Perl DP, Ferlinz K, Bisgaier CL, Sandhoff K, Desnick RJ, Stewart CL, Schuchman EH. "Acid sphingomyelinase deficient mice: a model of types A and B Niemann−Pick disease" Nat Genet. 1995;10:288-93. PMID 7670466

CPE and CAEP

Ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) is formed from a ceramide phosphate linked with ethanolamine. It is often found in insects, trace amount in many animals including bacteria, protozoa, and mammals, and absent in plants or fungi.[1]

Ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) is similar to CPE but is formed by the C-P bonding. It is found in protozoa, cnidaria, mollusca, and echinodermata.[2]

セラミドホスホエタノールアミン(CPE)はセラミドにリン酸を介してエタノールアミンが結合したものです。昆虫に多く見出されますが、バクテリアから原生生物、哺乳動物まで多くの生物に微量ですが存在します。植物や菌類には見いだされていません。

セラミドアミノエチルホスホン酸(CAEP)はCPEと似た構造ですがC-P結合を持ち、原生生物、刺胞動物、軟体動物、棘皮動物などに存在します。

| OH = O
(C14-chain)OーPーOCH2CH2NH2
(fatty acid) ー | NH | OH

Biosynthesis

There exist three types of sphingomyelin synthase, two of which synthesize CPE. One is SM synthase 2 in cell- and golgi membranes and the other, SM synthase-like protein in the ER lumen (CPE synthase). [3]

スフィンゴミエリン (SM) 合成酵素には3タイプあり、そのうちの2種が CPE を合成します。一つはSM合成酵素SMS2で細胞膜やゴルジ体に存在し、他方は小胞体のスフィンゴミエリン1-関連酵素(SMSr/SAMD8)(CPE synthase)です。

SM synthase 2 family (SMS2)
phosphatidylethanolamine + ceramide → CPE + 1,2-diacylglycerol
CPE synthase (SMS1-related enzyme) SMSr/SAMD8
CDP-ethanolamine + ceramide → CPE + CMP
  1. Bhat HB, Ishitsuka R, Inaba T, Murate M, Abe M, Makino A, Kohyama-Koganeya A, Kurahashi A, Kishimoto T, Tahara M, Yamamo A, Nagamune K, Hirabayashi Y, Juni N, Umeda M, Fujimori F, Nishibori K, Yamaji A, Greimel P, Kobayashi T, Evaluation of aegerolysins as novel tools to detect and visualize ceramide phosphoethanolamine, a major sphingolipid in invertebrates, FASEB J. 2015 29:3920-34.PMID 26060215 Hannich JT, Umebayashi K, Riezman H. Distribution and functions of sterols and sphingolipids. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 3. pii: a004762.PMID 21454248
  2. Hori T, Itasaka O, Inoue H. Biochemistry of shellfish lipid. 3. Purification and elemental analysis of ceramide aminoethylphosphonate from Corbicula complex lipid mixtures. J Biochem. 1966 59:570-3. PMID 5962677
  3. Ternes P, Brouwers JF, van den Dikkenberg J, Holthuis JC. “Sphingomyelin synthase SMS2 displays dual activity as ceramide phosphoethanolaminesynthase”J Lipid Res. 2009; 50:2270-7. PMID 19454763

GIPC

Glycosyl inositol phosphoceramides (GIPCs) were historically referred to as 'phytoglycolipids' (PGLs) for their abundance in plants and fungi.[1][2] Later found in bacteria, protista, and other animals (except chordata), PGLs are now called GIPCs. The structure is composed of ceramide with inositol phosphate (inositolphosphoceramide, IPC) and different sugars are attached.[3][4]

Classification

In LipidBank, we classify GIPC into four types:

  1. P2 series: Glucosamine next to inositol (Fungi and Protista)
  2. P3 series: Glucuronic acid next to inositol (Plant)
  3. P4 series: Mannose next to inositol (Fungi)
  4. P5 series: Others
  5. (P1 series is sphingomyelin and ceramide phosphoethanolamine.)

グリコシルイノシトールホスホセラミド (GIPC) は植物に多く含まれるため、以前はフィト糖脂質 (phytoglycolipid, PGL) と呼ばれました。その後、菌類や植物だけでなく、バクテリア、原生生物、動物界(脊索動物は除く)に存在することがわかり、現在はGIPCと呼ばれます。 セラミドにイノシトールリン酸が結合したイノシトールホスホセラミド(IPC)に、様々な糖がついて伸長します。

LipidBankではGIPCを4つに分類しています。

  1. イノシトールの次がグルコサミン (原生生物と菌類)
  2. イノシトールの次がグルクロン酸 (植物)
  3. イノシトールの次がマンノース (菌類)
  4. その他

| OH = O
(C14-chain)OーPーO-Inositol-(sugar chain)
(fatty acid) ー | NH | OH

Biosynthesis

Inositol phosphoceramide synthase (IPCS)[5]
Phosphatidylinositol + Ceramide → Inositol phosphoceramide + Diacylglycerol


  1. Carter HE, Celmer WD, Galanos DS, Gigg RH, Lands EM, Law JH, Mueller KL, Nakayama T, Tomizawa HH, Weber E. Biochemistry of the sphingolipides. X. Phytoglycolipide, a complex phytosphingosine-containing lipide from plant seeds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 1958 35: 335–343 DOI 10.1007/BF02640547
  2. Carter HE, Kisic A. “Countercurrent distribution of inosol lipids of plant seeds” J Lipid Res. 1969; 10:356-62. PMID 4307829
  3. Buré C, Cacas JL, Mongrand S, Schmitter JM "Characterization of glycosyl inositol phosphoryl ceramides from plants and fungi by mass spectrometry" Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014 406:995-1010. PMID 23887274
  4. Gronnier J, Germain V, Gouguet P, Cacas JL, Mongrand S. ”GIPC: Glycosyl Inositol Phospho Ceramides, the major sphingolipids on earth”Plant Signal Behav. 2016 2;11(4):e1152438 PMID 27074617
  5. Zhong W, Murphy DJ, Georgopapadakou NH. “Inhibition of yeast inositol phosphorylceramide synthase by aureobasidin A measured by afluorometric assay” FEBS Lett. 1999; 17;463:241-4. PMID 10606729

Sphingolipids in All Kingdoms

The table lists biological species from which sphingolipids were identified. Icons indicate representative species. The icons are used in sphingolipid references together with Synthesis.png for chemical synthesis.

ここに示す分類表にはスフィンゴ脂質が報告された生物が記載されており、アイコンは代表種を表します。スフィンゴ脂質関連の文献にはこれらのアイコンの他、化学合成を表すSynthesis.pngも使われます。

Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Model organism Icon Galactosylceramides (GalCer)
(*β configuration unless otherwise state)
Glucosylceramides (GlcCer)
(*β configuration unless otherwise state)
Glycosphingolipids
(GSL)
Ceramide phosphoethanolamine
(CPE)
Sphingomyelin
(SM)
Ceramide aminoethylphosphonate
(CAEP)
Ceramide methylaminoethylphosphonate
(CMAEP)
Glycosyl inositol phosphoceramides
(GIPC)
ドメイン モデル生物 Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Major series Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References Species
(Structure)
FA, LCB References
真正細菌
Bacteria
バクテロイデス門
Bacteroidetes
腸内細菌 Bacteria.png Bacteroides
fragilis
(α-GalCer)
br-h17:0,
br-d17:0
PubMed Bacteroides
fragilis
br-h17:0,
br-d17:0
PubMed Sphingobacterium
spiritivorum
/ATCC33861
(Ins-P-Cer)
br-15:0,
br-h15:0,
br-d17:0
PubMed
シアノバクテリア門
Cyanobacteria
藍色細菌 Scytonema
julianum
(Acetyl-
sphingomyelin)
15:1,d18:1 PubMed
プロテオバクテリア門
Proteobacteria
大腸菌 Cystobacter
fuscus
(β-GalCer)
br-h17:0,
br-d19:2
DOI Sphingomonas
paucimobilis
(GlcAα-Cer)
h14:0,d18:0 PubMed Sorangium
cellulosum
h16:1,
br-h17:1,
h18:1,
br-d21:3,
br-d21:2
PubMed Bacteriovorax
stolpii
br-h15:0,
br-15:0,
br-t17:0,
br-d17:0
PubMed
真核生物
Eukaryota
原生生物界
Protista
メタモナーダ門 Metamonada 鞭毛虫 Protista.png Giardia
lamblia
undescribed PubMed Trichomonas
vaginalis
16:0,d18:1 PubMed Giardia
lamblia
16:0,d18:1 DOI
ユーグレノゾア門
Euglenozoa
Leishmania
amazonensis

Plasmodium
falciparum
undescribed

h10:0,h120,
d18:0,d20:0
PubMed

PubMed
Leishmania
amazonensis
(Galβ1-3Galα1
-4Galβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Plasmodium
falciparum
(trihexosyl-
ceramide)

Trypanosoma
brucei
(GM3,GM1,
GD1a,GD1b)
undescribed

h12:0,h14:0,
d18:0,d20:0

undescribed
PubMed

PubMed

PubMed
Globo,
a-series,
b-series
Leishmania
major
18:0,d16:1 PubMed Plasmodium
falciparum
undescribed PubMed Trypanosoma
brucei
(Ins-P-Cer)
16:0,17:0,
18:0 d16:0,
d17:0,d18:1,
d18:0,d19:0,
d20:0,d20:1
PubMed
(*Procyclic
formのみ)
繊毛虫門
Ciliophora
繊毛虫 Entodinium
caudatum
undescribed PubMed Tetrahymena
pyriformis
/WH-14
16:0,
br-17:0,
br-18:0,
br-h17:0,
h18:0,
br-d17:1,
br-d18:1
PubMed Tetrahymena
pyriformis
/WH-14
16:0,
br-18:0,
br-h17:0,
d18:1
PubMed
植物界
Plantae
緑藻植物門
Chlorophyta
クロレラ Plantae.png Pseudococcomyxa
chodatii
h16:0,h18:0,h20:0,
h22:0,h24:0
d18:2,t18:0,t18:1
DOI Chlorella
kessleri
(Galα1-4Galβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
undescribed PubMed Globo Chlorella
variabilis
(Hex(2)-Ins
-P-Cer)
h24:1, t18:0 Nebraska
Univ.,2015

(*学位論文。
ESI-MS分析,
糖の種類は
Hexとしか
判別できない)
ストレプト植物門
Streptophyta
(*被子植物門を除く) (except Angiosperm)
緑色植物 Ginkgo
biloba

Stenochlaena
palustris
h16:0,d18:2

h24:0,d18:2
DOI

DOI
Pteridum
aquilinum
(HexNAc-HexA
-(Hex-)Ins
-P-Cer)
h24:0,t18:0 PubMed
(*MALDI-MS分析,
糖の種類は
Hexとしか
判別できない)
被子植物門
Angiosperm
シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis
thaliana
16:0,h24:1,
d18:1,t18:1
PubMed Prunus
armeniaca
/kernel
undescribed J.Chromatogra.,
294,519-524,
1984
Arabidopsis
thaliana
/leaves
(Glc-GlcA
-Ins-P-Cer)
h24:0,t18:1 PubMed
菌界
Fungi
接合菌門
Zygomycota
ケカビ、クモノスカビ Fungi.png Mucor
hiemalis
h14:0,h16:0,
br-d19:2,d20:1
PubMed Mucor
hiemalis
(Galβ1-6Galβ1
-Cer)
h24:0,h25:0,
h26:0,t18:0
PubMed Gala PubMed
(*接合菌門に
はGIPC
は含まれ
ない。)
子嚢菌門
Ascomycota
酵母、コウジカビ Aspergillus
oryzae
h18:0,br-d19:2 PubMed Aspergillus
oryzae
h18:0,br-d19:2 PubMed Neurospora
crassa
(Glcα1-2Galβ1-
6Galβ1-6Galβ1-Cer)
h24:0,t18:0 PubMed Gala Aspergillus
nidulans
(Manα1-3Manα
-2Ins-P-Cer)
h24:0,t18:0 PubMed
担子菌門
Basidiomycota
キノコ Cryptococcus
neoformans
h18:0,br-d19:2 PubMed Cryptococcus
neoformans
(Ins-P-6Manα1
-2Ins-P-Cer)
undescribed PubMed
動物界
Animalia
海綿動物門
Porifera
カイメン Porifera.png Agelas
mauritianus
(α-GalCer)


Chondropsis sp.
(β-GalCer)

h24:0,br-t18:0


h24:0,br-d18:1

DOI


DOI

Haliclona sp. h22:0,t18:1 DOI Amphimedon
viridis
(GlcNAcα1-Cer,
GlcNAcβ1-Cer)
h22:0,br-t20:1,
h22:0,br-t20:1,
br-t19:0
DOI Svenzea
zeai
(Arapβ1
-6Ins-P-Cer)
16:0,
br-16:0,
br-17:0,
d26:1,d26:0
PubMed
刺胞動物門
Cnidaria
クラゲ Cnidaria.png Metridium
senile

Sarcophyton ehrenbergi
(α-GlcCer)
h16:0,h20:0,
br-d19:2

h18:0,br-d19:3
PubMed

PubMed
PubMed
(*刺胞動物門はCPEをもたない。)
PubMed
(*刺胞動物門はSMをもたない。)
Aurelia
aurita
14:0,16:0,
d18:1,t18:0
PubMed Aurelia
aurita
14:0,16:0,
d18:1,t18:0
PubMed
    (旧口動物、冠輪)
(Protostomia, Lophotrochozoa)
扁形動物門
Platyhelminthes
吸虫綱
Trematoda
ジストマ Platyhelminthes.png Fasciola
hepatica
18:0,h18:0,
t18:0,t20:0
PubMed Fasciola
hepatica

Schistosoma mansoni
18:0,h18:0,
t18:0,t20:0

h16:0,t18:0,
t20:0
PubMed

PubMed
Fasciola
hepatica
(Galα1-4Galβ1
-4-Glcβ1-Cer)

Schistosoma
mansoni
(GalNAcβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Schistosoma
mansoni
(GM1,GD1a,
GD1b,GT1b)
undescribed

h16:0,26:0

undescribed
PubMed

PubMed

DOI
Globo,
Schisto,
Ganglio,
a-series
Paramphistomum
cervi
16:0,18:1 PubMed
渦虫綱
Tubellaria
プラナリア Dugesia
dorotocephala
undescribed PubMed
条虫綱
Cestoda
サナダムシ Diphyllobothrium
hottai
16:0,18:0,26:0,
28:0,d18:0,
d20:0,t18:0,
t20:0
PubMed Diphyllobothrium
hottai
16:0,18:0,
26:0,28:0,
d18:0,d20:0,
t18:0,t20:0
PubMed Diphyllobothrium
hottai
(Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)Glcβ1-3Galβ1-Cer)

Spirometra
erinacei
(Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)Glcβ1-3Galβ1-Cer)

Echinococcus
multilocularis
(GM1,GM3,
GD1a,GM2)
16:0,18:0,
26:0,28:0,
d18:0,d20:0,
t18:0

18:0,18:1,
d18:0,t18:0

16:0,24:0,
24:1,d18:1
PubMed

PubMed

PubMed
Spirometo,
a-series
Hymenolepis
diminuta
undescribed PubMed
外肛動物門
Bryozoa
コケムシ Pectinatella
magnifica
undescribed DOI Pectinatella
magnifica
(GlcNAcβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
undescribed DOI
腕足動物門
Brachiopoda
シャミセンガイ Brachiopoda.png Lingula
unguis
h16:0,h17:0,
h18:0,d18:1,
d18:3
DOI Lingula
unguis
(Manα1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
16:0,18:0,
d18:3
DOI Mollu Lingula
unguis
16:0,18:0,
h16:0,h18:0,
d18:1,d18:3
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学・教育科学,45,31-42,1995
環形動物門
Annelida
貧毛綱
Oligochaeta
ミミズ Annelida.png Pheretima
aspergillum
22:0,24:0,
h22:0,h23:0,
h24:0,br-d18:1,
d18:1,t18:0
DOI Pheretima
aspergillum
22:0,24:0,
br-d18:1,
d18:1,
br-d19:1
DOI Pheretima
aspergillum
(Galβ1-6Galβ1-Cer)

Pheretima
hilgendorfi
(PC-6Galβ1
-6Galβ1-Cer)
22:0,24:0,
h24:0,
br-d18:1,
d18:1,t18:0

22:0,24:0,
br-d18:1,
br-d19:1
DOI

PubMed
Neogala (*環形動物門では
SMは見つからない。)
PubMed
(*SM-Binding Protein, Lyseninはミミズから抽出。)
ヒル綱
Hirudinea
ヒル Hirudo
nipponica
(β-GalCer)
16:0,22:0,
24:0,d18:1,
br-d19:1,
d22:3
DOI Hirudo
nipponica
(Galα1-6Galβ1-Cer,
PC-6Galβ1
-6Galβ1-Cer)
16:0,22:0,
24:0,d18:1,
br-d19:1,
16:0,22:0,
24:0,t18:0,
br-t19:0,
d22:3
DOI Isoneogala (*環形動物門ではSMは見つからない。)
多毛綱
Polychaeta
サシバゴカイ目
Phyllodocida
イトメ Tylorrhynchus
heterochaetus
16:0,17:0,
18:0,h16:0,
h17:0 d18:1,
d18:2
DOI Tylorrhynchus
heterochaetus
16:0,17:0,
18:0,h16:0,
h17:0
DOI Tylorrhynchus
heterochaetus
(PC-6Galβ1-Cer)
16:0,d18:1,
d18:2
DOI (*環形動物門ではSMは見つからない。) Tylorrhynchus
heterochaetus
(InsMe-P-Cer)
h16:0,h18:0,
t18:0
DOI
ケヤリ目
Sabellida
エラコ Pseudopotamilla
occelata
16:0,18:0,
h16:0,h18:0,
d18:1
DOI Pseudopotamilla
occelata
16:0,18:0,
h16:0,h18:0,
d18:1
DOI Pseudopotamilla
occelata
(Galα1-4Galβ1-Cer,
Galβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer)
16:0,18:0,
d18:1,
20:1,22:1,
d18:1
DOI Gala (*環形動物門ではSMは見つからない。) Pseudopotamilla
occelata
(Ins-P-Cer)
undescribed DOI
軟体動物門
Mollusca
二枚貝綱
Bivalvia
二枚貝 Mollusca.png Hyriopsis
schlegelii
/egg
14:0,16:0,
h16:0,d18:1,
br-d19:1
PubMed Hyriopsis
schlegelii
/egg
14:0,16:0,
h16:0,d18:1,
br-d19:1
PubMed Hyriopsis
schlegelii
/sperm
(Manα1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
16:0,18:0,
20:0,d18:1,
br-d18:1
PubMed
PubMed
Mollu Pinctada
martensii
h16:0,h18:0,
d18:1,d18:0
PubMed Pinctada
martensii
16:0,17:0,
18:0,d16:1,
d18:1,d18:2
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学,54,41-48,2004 Hyriopsis
schlegelii
/egg
15:0,16:0,
d18:1
DOI Mytilus
galloprovincialis
16:0,h16:0,
d18:1,t18:0
PubMed
腹足綱
Gastropoda
巻貝 Chlorostoma
argyrostoma
turbinatum
16:0,h16:0,
h18:0,d18:1,
d18:2
PubMed Euhadra
hickonis
16:0,h16:0,
br-d19:1,
d18:1
DOI Chlorostoma
argyrostoma
turbinatum
(Galβ1-6Galβ1-Cer)
16:0,17:0,
h16:0,h18:0,
d18:1,
br-d18:1,
d18:2,d19:1
PubMed Neogala Heterogen
longispira
undescribed PubMed Sinotaia
historica
undescribed PubMed Monodonta
labio
undescribed PubMed Monodonta
labio
undescribed PubMed
頭足綱
Cephalopoda
イカ、タコ Ommastrephes
sloani pacificus
/sperm
16:0,18:0,
22:0,22:1,
d16:1
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学・教育科学,44,17-23,1994 Ommastrephes
sloani pacificus
/sperm
16:0,18:0,
22:0,22:1,
d16:1
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学・教育科学,44,17-23,1994 Ommastrephes
sloani pacificus
/sperm
(Manβ1-4Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Todarodes
pacificus
(GT3,GQ1c)
16:0,18:1,
22:1,24:1,
d16:1

undescribed
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学・教育科学,44,17-23,1994

PubMed
c-series Todarodes
pacificu
/viscera
16:0,18:0,
24:1,d16:1
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学,59,29-37,2009 Todarodes
pacificus
/viscera
16:0,22:1,
24:1,d16:1
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学,59,29-37,2009
(旧口動物、脱皮)
(Protostomia, Ecdysozoa)
線形動物門
Nematoda
クロマドラ綱
Chromadorea
回虫 Nematoda.png Ascaris
suum
/adult

Ascaris
suum
h24:0,br-d17:1,
br-d17:0,
br-t17:0,t18:0
PubMed

DOI
Ascaris
suum
(HSO3-3Galβ1-Cer)

Ascaris
suum
/adult
(GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Ascaris
suum
(PC-6GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer)
24:0,h24:0,br-d17:1,
br-d17:0,
br-t18:0

h24:0,br-d17:1,
br-d17:0

h22:0,h24:0,
br-d17:1,
br-d17:0
PubMed

PubMed

DOI
Arthro Ascaris
suum
24:0,h24:0,
br-d17:1,
br-d17:0,
br-t17:0
DOI Ascaris
suum
(Galα1-
2Ins-P-Cer)
24:0,h24:0,
br-d17:0,
d18:0
PubMed
節足動物門 Arthropoda 昆虫綱 Insecta  ハエ Arthropoda.png Lucilia
caesar
/larvae
16:0,18:0,
20:0,22:0,
d14:1,d16:1
PubMed Lucilia
caesar
/larvae
(GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
16:0,18:0,
20:0,22:0,
d14:1,d16:1
PubMed Arthro Lucilia
caesar
/pupae
20:0,22:0 PubMed
(*昆虫綱ではショウジョウバエなど少数の種のみCPEを多くもつ。)
Aedes
aegypti
/cells
18:0,20:0,
22:0
PubMed
(*昆虫綱では多くの種がSMをもつ。)
甲殻亜門
軟甲綱
Crustacea
Malacostraca
エビ、カニ Penaeus
duorarum
/ventral nerve
undescribed PubMed Euphausia
superba
(GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Euphausia
superba
(MAEPn-6Glcβ1-Cer)
22:1,24:1,
d14:1

22:1,h22:1,
h24:1,d14:1,
br-d18:3,
d18:3
DOI

PubMed
Arthro Erimacrus
isenbeckii
18:0,20:0,
22:0,22:1,
d14:1,d14:0
滋賀大学教育学部紀要,自然科学,52,9-16,2002
甲殻亜門
鰓脚綱
Crustacea Branchiopoda
カブトエビ、ミジンコ Artemia
franciscana
18:0,22:0,
h18:0,d16:1,
d17:1
PubMed Artemia
franciscana
(GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
22:0,d16:1,
d17:1
PubMed Arthro Artemia
franciscana
18:0,22:0,
d16:1,d17:1
PubMed
多足亜門
ヤスデ綱
Myriapoda Diplopoda
ヤスデ Parafontaria
laminata
h(2- or 3-hydroxy)23:0,
h(2- or 3-hydroxy)24:0,
d17:1,br-d18:1,
d18:1
PubMed Parafontaria
laminata
(GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)
22:0,23:0,
24:0,d17:1,
br-d18:1
PubMed Arthro Parafontaria
laminata
16:0,17:0,
18:0,22:0,
d17:1,d18:1
滋賀文化短期大学紀要,3,71-78,1993 Spirostreptus
asthene s
/oocytes
undescribed DOI
(新口動物)
(Deuterostomia)
棘皮動物門
Echinodermata
ウミユリ綱
Crinoidea
  ウミユリ Echinodermata.png Comanthus
japonica
24:0,h18:0,
h22:1,h24:0,
d16:1,d18:2,
t16:0
PubMed Comanthus
japonica
(Ins-P-Cer)
22:0,24:0,
d16:1
DOI
DOI
(*9-O-MeNeuGc
が結合したGIPC
がある。)
DOI
(*9-O-MeNeuAc
が結合したGIPC
がある。)
ヒトデ綱
Asteroidea
ヒトデ Culcita
novaeguineae
h22:0,br-t16:0 PubMed Asterias
rubens
d18:2,d22:1,
d22:2
PubMed Luidia
maculata
(Galβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Luidia
maculata
((3-sulfo)Galβ1
-4Galβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer)

Luidia
maculata
(GM3)

Luidia
maculata
(GD3)
h16:0,h22:0,
h24:0,
br-d19:1,
t16:0,
br-t17:0,
t22:1

h22:0,
br-t19:0

h22:0,t19:0

h22:0,t17:0
DOI

DOI

DOI

PubMed
a-series,
b-series
Distolasterias
nipon
undescribed DOI
クモヒトデ綱
Ophiuroidea
クモヒトデ Ophiocoma
scolopendrina
(NeuGcα2
-6Glcβ1-Cer,
GM5,
HSO3-8NeuAcα2
-6Glcβ1-Cer)
18:0,t18:0,
br-t18:0,
h22:0,t18:0,
br-t18:0
PubMed Echino
ウニ綱
Echinoidea
ウニ Anthocidaris
crassispina
/egg
22:1,24:1,
h22:1,h24:1,
t18:0
PubMed Anthocidaris
crassispina
/egg
(Galα1-6Glcβ1Cer)

Anthocidaris
crassispina
/egg
(NeuGcα2
-6Glcβ1-Cer,
GM5,
HSO3-8NeuGcα2
-6Glcβ1-Cer)
22:1,24:1,
h22:1,h24:1,
t18:0

h22:1,h23:1,
h24:1,t18:0
PubMed

PubMed
Echino Strongylocentrotus
intermedius
undescribed DOI
ナマコ綱
Holothuroidea
ナマコ Bohadschia
argus
h24:1,d17:1,
br-d17:1
PubMed Cucumaria
echinata
h22:0,h23:0,
h24:0,
br-d17:1
DOI Holothuria
leucospilota
(NeuGcα2
-6Glcβ1-Cer,
GM5)
h22:0,h23:0,
h24:0,h24:1,
br-t17:0,br-t18:0,
br-t19:0
DOI Echino
脊索動物門
Chordata
ホヤ綱
Ascidiacea
ホヤ Ascidia.png Aplidium
nordmani,
Styela
partita,
Botryllus
leachii
h24:0,t18:0,
br-t19:0
DOI Microcosmus
sulcatus
(Galβ1-4(Fucα1
-3)Glcβ1-Cer)
h22:0,h23:0,
t19:0
DOI Ciona
intestinalis
16:0,18:0,
18:1,d16:1,
d18:2
PubMed
軟骨魚綱
Chondrichthyes
エイ Chondrichthyes.png Carcharhinus
plumbeus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
undescribed PubMed Squalus
acanthias
/rectal gland
undescribed PubMed Bathyraja
smirnovi
(GM2,GD2)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Torpedo
marmorata
/electric organ
16:0,24:1,
d18:1
PubMed
条鰭綱
Actinopterygii
硬骨魚 Actinopterygii.png Cyprinus
carpio
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
24:1,h24:0 PubMed Theragra
chalcogramm
/brain
24:1 PubMed Latimeria
chalumnae
(GM3,GD3)

Theragra
chalcogramma
(9-O-Ac-GT3)
16:0,18:0,
24:1,d18:1

undescribed
DOI

PubMed
a-series,
b-series,
c-series
Latimeria
chalumnae
/brain
undescribed DOI
両生綱
Amphibia
カエル Amphibia.png Rana
catesbeiana
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
18:0,24:1,
h24:1,d18:0,
d18:1
PubMed Bufo
japonicus
/skin
22:0,24:0,
h22:0,h24:0,
t18:0
PubMed Rana
pipiens
(GD1b,GT1b)
undescribed DOI b-series Rana
pipiens
/spinal cord
undescribed J.Exp.Biol. 29, 203-210, 1952
爬虫綱
Reptilias
ワニ Reptilia.png Iguana spp.
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
nonhydroxy FA,hydoroxy FA PubMed Anolis
carolinensis
/kidney
h23:0,h24:0,
h24:1,d18:1
PubMed Pseudemys
scripta elegans
/brain
(GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1b,GQ1b)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Tropidurus
torquatus
undescribed PubMed
鳥綱
Aves
トリ Aves.png Gallus
gallus domesticus
/sciatic nerve
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
22:0,24:0,
h22:0,h24:0
PubMed Gallus
gallus
domesticus
/lens
undescribed PubMed Anser
anser
/brain
(GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1b,GQ1b)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Colurnba
livia domestica
/liver
16:0,18:0,
20:4
PubMed
哺乳綱
Mammalia
無盲腸目
Eulipotyphla
モグラ Mammalia.png Suncus
murinus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
24:0,h24:0,
d18:1
PubMed Suncus
murinus
/brain
24:0,h24:0,
d18:1
PubMed Suncus
murinus
/brain
(GalNAcβ1-4Galβ1
-4Glcβ1-Cer,
GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1b)
24:0,d18:1 PubMed Ganglio,
a-series,
b-series
Suncus
murinus
/liver
undescribed PubMed
食肉目
Carnivora
ネコ、イヌ Felis
silvestris catus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
undescribed PubMed Canis
lupus familiaris
/intestine
20:0,22:0,
24:0,hFA
PubMed Felis
silvestris catus
/brain
(GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1b,GQ1b)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Canis lupus
familiaris
/brain
undescribed PubMed
奇蹄目
Perissodactyla
ウマ Equus
caballus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
22:0,24:0,
24:1,h22:0,
h24:0,h24:1,
d18:1
PubMed Equus
caballus
/spleen
16:0,22:0,
24:0
PubMed Equus
caballus
/brain
(GM4,GM3,GM2,
GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1b)
18:0,20:0,
24:0,h24:0,
h24:1,d18:1,
d20:1
PubMed a-series,
b-series
Equus
caballus
/spinal cord
16:0,18:0,
22:0,24:1
DOI
鯨偶蹄目
Cetartiodactyla
ウシ、ブタ Bos
taurus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
18:0,24:0,
24:1,h18:0,
h24:0,h24:1,
d18:1
PubMed Bos
taurus
/spleen
22:0,23:0,
24:0
PubMed Bos
taurus
/brain
(GM2,GM1,GD3,
GD1a,GD1b)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Bos
taurus
/brain
18:0,24:0,24:1,
d18:1
PubMed Ovis
aries
/brain,
Capra
linnaeus
/brain
undescribed PubMed
兎目
Lagomorpha
ウサギ Oryctolagus
cuniculus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
undescribed PubMed Oryctolagus
cuniculus
/skin fibroblasts
undescribed PubMed Oryctolagus
cuniculus
/brain
(GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Oryctolagus
cuniculus
/brain
undescribed PubMed
齧歯目
Rodentia
ラット、マウス Rattus
norvegicus
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
undescribed PubMed Mus
musculus
/erythrocytes
16:0,18:1,
22:0,24:1,
d18:1
PubMed Rattus
norvegicus
/brain
(GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Rattus
norvegicus
/brain
undescribed PubMed
霊長目
Primates
ヒト Primates.png Homo
sapiens
/brain
(Gal-Cer,SO3-3Galβ1-Cer)
18:0,24:1,
24:0,25:1,
25:0,26:1,
h16:0,h22:0,
h23:0,h24:1,
h24:0
PubMed Homo
sapiens
/spleen of
Gaucher's
disease

Homo
sapiens
/blood
22:0,d18:1

undescribed
PubMed

PubMed
Homo
sapiens
/brain
(GM1,GD1a,GD1b,
GT1b)
undescribed PubMed a-series,
b-series
Homo
sapiens
/brain
18:0,24:1 PubMed

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